2019 journal article
1,4-Dioxane in drinking water: Emerging for forty years and still unregulated
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health.
The likely human carcinogen 1,4-dioxane was first detected in drinking water more than 40 years ago, and a recent analysis suggests that almost 30 million people in the United States receive drinking water with 1,4-dioxane levels above the health-based reference concentration of 0.35 μg/L. The widespread occurrence of 1,4-dioxane has exposed the need for developing and implementing management and treatment approaches that protect drinking water sources and prevent human exposure to 1,4-dioxane through drinking water. In this review we highlight recent advances in analytical methods, understanding of occurrence, and treatment processes. Finding are discussed in the context of managing 1,4-dioxane as a drinking water contaminant, and recommendations are made to address important knowledge gaps.