2021 journal article
Developing and Testing the Transformative Travel Experience Scale (TTES)
Journal of Travel Research, 5, 004728752091951.
Transformative travel encourages tourists to self-reflect, question their assumptions, and develop a more tolerant worldview. While this form of travel is gaining attention, there is unmet demand for a scale that measures the complex transformative travel experience and potential outcomes. This study focuses on developing the Transformative Travel Experience Scale (TTES). The study applies a well-tested approach based on DeVellis and Podsakoff et al. to reveal that a four-dimensional scale, composed of the dimensions of local residents and culture, self-assurance, disorienting dilemma, and joy, can be successfully used to measure the process and outcomes of transformative travel. From a theoretical perspective, the findings suggest that the disorienting dilemma might occur at different points in time. The Transformative Travel Experience Scale is helpful to organizations that want to capture the positive changes resulting from participation in transformative travel when applying for certifications, awards, and grants.