2022 journal article
Plant nitrogen nutrition: The roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
JOURNAL OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 269.
Nitrogen (N) is the most abundant mineral nutrient required by plants, and crop productivity depends heavily on N fertilization in many soils. Production and application of N fertilizers consume huge amounts of energy and substantially increase the costs of agricultural production. Excess N compounds released from agricultural systems are also detrimental to the environment. Thus, increasing plant N uptake efficiency is essential for the development of sustainable agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are beneficial symbionts of most terrestrial plants that facilitate plant nutrient uptake and increase host resistance to diverse environmental stresses. AM association is an endosymbiotic process that relies on the differentiation of both host plant roots and AM fungi to create novel contact interfaces within the cells of plant roots. AM plants have two pathways for nutrient uptake: either direct uptake via the root hairs and root epidermis, or indirectly through AM fungal hyphae into root cortical cells. Over the last few years, great progress has been made in deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the AM-mediated modulation of nutrient uptake processes, and a growing number of fungal and plant genes responsible for the uptake of nutrients from soil or transfer across the fungi-root interface have been identified. Here, we mainly summarize the recent advances in N uptake, assimilation, and translocation in AM symbiosis, and also discuss how N interplays with C and P in modulating AM development, as well as the synergies between AM fungi and soil microbial communities in N uptake.