2022 journal article
Characterization of Salmonella enterica Contamination in Pork and Poultry Meat from São Paulo/Brazil: Serotypes, Genotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles
Salmonellosis is a zoonosis of major relevance to global public health. Here we present the assessment of Salmonella enterica contamination in pork and poultry meat sold at retail markets in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 780 meat samples (386 poultry meat and 394 pork samples) were collected from 132 markets. From these, 57 samples (7.3%) were positive for S. enterica isolation, including 32 (8.3%) poultry meat and 25 (6.3%) pork samples. S. enterica isolates were further characterized for serotyping, antimicrobial resistance and genotyping by amplified fragment length polymorphism and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobial resistance analysis demonstrated two main profiles: pork isolates were more resistant to macrolides, β-lactams, tetracycline, phenicols, and fluoroquinolones, and poultry meat isolates presented higher resistance to fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and β-lactams. A total of 72.4% of poultry meat isolates were identified as S. Heidelberg, while most of pork isolates were S. Typhimurium (31.7%) and S. Give (16.7%). Genotyping resulted in most clusters consisting exclusively of pork or poultry meat, no cross-contamination was detected, and a tendency to differentiate isolates according to their serotypes and markets of origin. High resistance rates to critically important antimicrobials reinforce the importance of controlling Salmonella contamination in meat production chains.