TY - JOUR
TI - Generalized differentiability for a class of nondifferentiable operators with applications to nonsmooth optimization
AU - Reiland, Thomas W.
T2 - Journal of the Australian Mathematical Society. Series A. Pure Mathematics and Statistics
AB - Abstract A theory of generalized gradients is presented for a class of Lipschitz vector-valued mappings from a Banach space to a locally convex order complete vector lattice. Necessary optimality conditions are obtained for nonconvex programming problems on Banach spaces with vector- valued operator constraints and/or an arbitrary set constraint. Sufficient optimality conditions are also obtained under mild convexity assumptions.
DA - 1989/8//
PY - 1989/8//
DO - 10.1017/S144678870003127X
VL - 47
IS - 1
SP - 114-132
J2 - J Aust Math Soc A
LA - en
OP -
SN - 0263-6115
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S144678870003127X
DB - Crossref
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THE RING SPINNING PROCESS .2. WITH AIR DRAG
AU - BATRA, SK
AU - GHOSH, TK
AU - ZEIDMAN, MI
T2 - TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL
AB - The dynamics of the ring spinning process has been re-analyzed as a coupled set of subproblems; the solutions are obtained numerically. The analyses in Part I and II of this series deal with the case of an uncontrolled balloon. In Part I the effects of air drag as well as gravitational and Coriolis accelerations are ignored. In Part II the effects of air drag are included. These analyses differ from the earlier ones in their choice of the relevant boundary conditions; the ones used here are presumed more realistic. Shapes of the spinning balloons are derived from the conditions of dynamic equilibrium of the yam, from pig-tail to wind-point, as well as that of the traveler. Non-dimen sionalization of the problem, is based on two physical lengths, which allows easy comparison of the balloon shapes for widely different dynamic conditions (including collapsed balloons) on the same plot. Tension distributions along the yarn path can be predicted. Similarly, mass of the traveler required for a specified yam tension at the pig-tail can be calculated. Air drag is found to be particularly useful in controlling the shape and size of the balloon. The numerical solution procedures developed can be used to explore the regions of instability of the balloon.
DA - 1989/7//
PY - 1989/7//
DO - 10.1177/004051758905900707
VL - 59
IS - 7
SP - 416-424
SN - 0040-5175
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THE RING SPINNING PROCESS .1. WITHOUT AIR DRAG AND CORIOLIS ACCELERATION
AU - BATRA, SK
AU - GHOSH, TK
AU - ZEIDMAN, MI
T2 - TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL
AB - We have re-analyzed the dynamics of the ring spinning process as a coupled set of subproblems and have obtained the solutions numerically. The analyses in Parts I and II of this series deal with the case of an uncontrolled balloon. In Part I we ignore the effects of air drag as well as gravitational and Coriolis accelerations. In Part II we include the effects of air drag. These analyses differ from the earlier ones in their choice of the relevant boundary conditions; those used here we presume are more realistic. The shapes of the spinning balloons are derived from the conditions of dynamic equi librium of the yam, from pigtail to wind-point, as well as that of the traveler. Non dimensionalization of the problem is based on two physical lengths, allowing easy comparison of the balloon shapes for widely different dynamic conditions (including collapsed balloons) on the same plot. Tension distributions along the yarn path can be predicted. Similarly, the mass of the traveler required for a specified yarn tension at the pigtail can be calculated. Air drag is particularly useful in controlling the shape and size of the balloon. The numerical solution procedures we have developed can be used to explore the regions of instability of the balloon.
DA - 1989/6//
PY - 1989/6//
DO - 10.1177/004051758905900601
VL - 59
IS - 6
SP - 309-317
SN - 0040-5175
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - RELATIONSHIPS AMONG RECENT MODELS FOR INSECT POPULATION-DYNAMICS WITH VARIABLE RATES OF DEVELOPMENT
AU - SCHAALJE, GB
AU - VANDERVAART, HR
T2 - JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL BIOLOGY
DA - 1989///
PY - 1989///
DO - 10.1007/BF00290637
VL - 27
IS - 4
SP - 399-428
SN - 0303-6812
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - MODELING INSECT POPULATIONS AFFECTED BY PESTICIDES WITH APPLICATION TO PESTICIDE EFFICACY TRIALS
AU - SCHAALJE, GB
AU - STINNER, RL
AU - JOHNSON, DL
T2 - ECOLOGICAL MODELLING
AB - Abstract Few attempts have been made to model the dynamics of insect populations as affected by pesticides. We attempt to develop such a model by incorporating a pesticide effectiveness model into a sojourn time model for population dynamics. However, obtaining a workable model requires simplifying assumptions such as that insects rid themselves of the pesticide as they mature from one growth stage to the next. Using this assumption, a simple pesticide-population model is fitted to data from a pesticide efficacy trial. This fit is good, and agreement between parameter estimates from the two blocks in the study as well as agreement between some parameter estimates and external estimates of the same parameter suggest that the model may be valid. A pesticide-population model utilizing some of these parameter estimates is used to investigate the estimand of the modified Abbott's formula. Because of the dependence of this formula on the phenological status of the populations, the routine use of a simple pesticide-population model in analysis of data from pesticide efficacy trials is discussed.
DA - 1989/9/15/
PY - 1989/9/15/
DO - 10.1016/0304-3800(89)90003-3
VL - 47
IS - 3-4
SP - 233-263
SN - 1872-7026
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - Incorporation of measured photosynthetic rate in a mathematical model for calculation of non-structural saccharide concentration
AU - Lim, J. T.
AU - Raper, C. D., Jr.
AU - Gold, H. J.
AU - Wilkinson, G. G.
T2 - Photosynthetica
DA - 1989///
PY - 1989///
VL - 23
IS - 4
SP - 543
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - Effects of mutation on selection limits in finite populations with multiple alleles
AU - Zeng, Z. B.
AU - Tachida, H.
AU - Cockerham, C. C.
T2 - Genetics
DA - 1989///
PY - 1989///
VL - 122
IS - 4
SP - 977
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - A GENETIC MODEL OF INTERPOPULATION VARIATION AND COVARIATION OF QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS
AU - ZENG, ZB
T2 - GENETICS RESEARCH
AB - Summary Evolutionary consequences of natural selection, migration, genotype–environment interaction, and random genetic drift on interpopulation variation and covariation of quantitative characters are analysed in terms of a selection model that partitions natural selection into directional and stabilizing components. Without migration, interpopulation variation and covariation depend mainly on the pattern and intensities of selection among populations and the harmonic mean of effective population sizes. Both transient and equilibrium covariance structures are formulated with suitable approximations. Migration reduces the differentiation among populations, but its effect is less with genotype–environment interaction. In some special cases of genotype–environment interaction, the equilibrium interpopulation variation and covariation is independent of migration.
DA - 1989/6//
PY - 1989/6//
DO - 10.1017/S0016672300028196
VL - 53
IS - 3
SP - 215-221
SN - 1469-5073
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - OPTIMUM ALLOCATION OF PLOTS TO YEARS, SEASONS, LOCATIONS, AND REPLICATIONS, AND ITS APPLICATION TO ONCE-OVER-HARVEST CUCUMBER TRIALS
AU - SWALLOW, WH
AU - WEHNER, TC
T2 - EUPHYTICA
DA - 1989/9//
PY - 1989/9//
DO - 10.1007/BF00037897
VL - 43
IS - 1-2
SP - 59-68
SN - 0014-2336
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - A building block model for quantitative genetics
AU - Tachida, H.
AU - Cockerham, C. C.
T2 - Genetics
DA - 1989///
PY - 1989///
VL - 121
IS - 4
SP - 839
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - A DISEQUILIBRIUM COEFFICIENT APPROACH TO HARDY-WEINBERG TESTING
AU - HERNANDEZ, JL
AU - WEIR, BS
T2 - BIOMETRICS
AB - A comparison was made of various tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, with emphasis on methods for multiple alleles. For an overall test of deviations from equilibrium, the classical chi-square goodness-of-fit test generally performs well, with continuity corrections needed for extreme gene frequencies or extreme departures from equilibrium. For small samples, probability tests are preferable and for multiple alleles these probability tests may be performed on a sample of all possible sets of genotypic frequencies having a fixed set of sample gene frequencies. Numerical work showed that the continuity-corrected chi-square was the most conservative test procedure, and the uncorrected chi-square the least conservative. With multiple alleles, a better appreciation of the nature of departures from equilibrium is given by the use of disequilibrium coefficients, defined for each heterozygote as the difference between observed and expected frequencies. Likelihood-ratio tests can be used to test each of these coefficients individually but a satisfactory procedure is to divide the squared estimate of each coefficient by its estimated variance and regard the ratio as a single-degree-of-freedom chi-square. Numerical studies confirmed the validity of this approach, which has the great advantage of not requiring solutions of nonlinear equations.
DA - 1989/3//
PY - 1989/3//
DO - 10.2307/2532034
VL - 45
IS - 1
SP - 53-70
SN - 1541-0420
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - Impact of ozone and sulfur dioxide on the yield of agricultural crops
AU - Sommerville, M. C.
AU - Spruill, S. E.
AU - Rawlings, J. O.
AU - Lesser, V. M.
T2 - Technical Bulletin (North Carolina Agricultural Research Service)
DA - 1989///
PY - 1989///
IS - 292
SP - 90
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - A QUANTITATIVE-GENETICS PERSPECTIVE ON MAMMALIAN DEVELOPMENT
AU - ATCHLEY, WR
AU - NEWMAN, S
T2 - AMERICAN NATURALIST
AB - These discussions are intended to describe some important aspects of evolutionary change in complex traits from a developmental quantitative-genetics perspective. These comments support the contention that information about the complexity of the trait, the dynamics of the underlying controlling factors, and an age-specific response to selection must be incorporated into discussions of evolutionary change by selection. The developmental complexity of a trait strongly influences attempts to ascertain its genetic architecture and its age-specific response to selection. The component parts are often under separate genetic control, and there is a substantial nonheritable component to many of these components. Recognition of this complexity permits variability in composite traits to be decomposed; the genetic architecture of the individual subunits is thus determined, yielding a more holistic picture of the genetic structure of the entire trait. Furthermore, it is clear that these complex traits could be altered by selection operating on any or all of the component parts. The magnitude and direction of selection response in complex traits are a function of the genetic-covariance structure among the component parts. As an additional consequence, it is possible that the same end-point phenotype can be obtained by changing different combinations of the component parts. If so, the correlated response to selection in other traits can be quite varied, depending on which component of the complex trait is changed by selection and on the genetic-covariance structure among the component parts within a trait and between traits. There are significant ontogenetic aspects of the underlying causal factors-that is, direct and indirect genetic factors-that are controlling each component part of a complex trait. The course of development in a complex trait involves coordination and integration of a number of separate biological processes that begin functioning during the early ontogeny of an organism. Genes influencing expression of these processes in mammals may arise from the individual's own genome and, as a result, contribute directly to production of the phenotype. In addition, during the prenatal and preweaning phases of ontogeny, the expression of genes in the individual's mother may contribute indirectly to the developmental expression of her progeny's phenotype. The interrelationship between direct and indirect maternal genetic factors has a decided ontogenetic aspect, since they contribute differentially during the prenatal, postnatal, and postweaning phases of development. Indeed, the magnitude and the direction of the contribution of these two separate but possibly correlated sets of genetic effects may change considerably as a function of the stage of ontogeny of the organism. The result of an ontogenetically changing set of genetic controlling factors is a much more complex response to selection than is predicted by the direct-effects genetic model. The size and magnitude of the genetic correlation between direct and maternal components of variability determine the direction and the rate of evolutionary change by selection. A negative genetic covariance between direct and maternal genetic components, which is common for many complex traits, greatly complicates the estimation of genetic parameters and the prediction of evolutionary change by selection. The actual components of a complex trait that is responding to selection may be strongly affected by the developmental age at which selection occurs. However, in addition to the qualitative aspects of selection response, developmental age may also have a quantitative component because of the age-dependent contribution of maternal effects. The earlier during ontogeny that selection is focused, the greater the potential contribution of maternal effects. Because of the potential for a negative covariance between direct and maternal genetic effects, the contribution to the selection response made by maternal effects can be quite complicated.
DA - 1989/9//
PY - 1989/9//
DO - 10.1086/284993
VL - 134
IS - 3
SP - 486-512
SN - 1537-5323
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - SURVIVAL ANALYSIS IN TELEMETRY STUDIES - THE STAGGERED ENTRY DESIGN
AU - POLLOCK, KH
AU - WINTERSTEIN, , SR
AU - BUNCK, CM
AU - CURTIS, PD
T2 - JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
AB - The estimation of survival distributions for radio-tagged animals is important to wildlife ecologists. Allowance must be made for animals being lost (or censored) due to radio failure, radio loss, or emigration of the animal from the study area. The Kaplan-Meier procedure (Kaplan and Meier 1958), widely used in medical studies subject to censoring, can be applied to this problem. We developed a simple modification of the Kaplan-Meier procedure that allows for new animals to be added after the study has begun. We present 2 examples using telemetry data collected from northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to show the simplicity and utility of the Kaplan-Meier procedure and its modifications. The log rank test used to compare 2 survival distributions can also be modified to allow for additions during the study. Simple computer programs that can be run on a personal computer are available from the authors. J. WILDL. MANAGE. 53(1):7-15 Radio-tagged animals are used to study survival. Present techniques for analyzing data from these studies assume that each survival event (typically an animal surviving a day) is independent and has a constant probability over all animals and all periods (Trent and Rongstad 1974, Bart and Robson 1982, Heisey and Fuller 1985). We believe these assumptions are often unrealistic and restrictive. White (1983) generalized discrete approaches using the same framework as that of band return models (Brownie et al. 1985) and he developed a flexible computer program (SURVIV) for use with his approach. Heisey and Fuller (1985) generalized the Trent and Rongstad (1974) approach to allow mortality from different causes (e.g., predation, starvation) and developed a microcomputer program called MICROMORT. Typically an animal's exact survival time (at least to within 1-2 days) is known unless that survival time is right censored (i.e., only known to be greater than some value). Pollock (1984) and Pollock et al. (1989) suggested a useful approach based on continuous survival models allowing right censoring that is widely used in medicine and engineering (Kalbfleisch and Prentice 1980, Cox and Oakes 1984) and provided examples of the Kaplan-Meier procedure. The Kaplan-Meier procedure does not require specification of a particular parametric continuous distribution; e.g., the exponential or Weibull. Related ecological papers using survival methods include Muenchow (1986), Pyke and Thompson (1986), Kurzejeski et al. (1987), and White et al. (1987). We present a simple description of the Kaplan-Meier procedure with an example using northern bobwhite quail survival data collected by PDC. We then generalize the Kaplan-Meier procedure to allow gradual (or staggered) entry of animals into the study. The calculations are illustrated with an example from the quail data. Finally, we present the log-rank test for comparison of survival distributions (modified for staggered entry of animals) with an example. We also present a discussion of model assumptions and directions for future research. We thank J. D. Nichols and W. L. Link for helpful comments on an earlier draft of this paper. We acknowledge G. C. White and D. M. Heisey for their helpful reviews that improved the final version. THE KAPLAN-MEIER OR PRODUCT LIMIT PROCEDURE The Kaplan-Meier or product limit estimator was developed by Kaplan and Meier (1958) and is d scussed by Cox and Oakes (1984:48) and Kalbfleisch and Prentice (1980:13). The survival function (S[t]) is the probability of an arbitrary animal in a population surviving t units of time from the beginning of the study. A nonparametric estimator of the survival function can be obtained by restricting ourselves to the discrete time points when deaths occur a1, a2, ..., ag. We define r, . . . , rg to be the numbers of an-
DA - 1989/1//
PY - 1989/1//
DO - 10.2307/3801296
VL - 53
IS - 1
SP - 7-15
SN - 0022-541X
ER -