TY - CONF
TI - How important is mutation for selection responses?
AU - Zeng, Z.-B.
AU - Tachida, H.
C2 - 1990///
C3 - Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production
DA - 1990///
VL - 13
SP - 301–305
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - Nonsmooth invexity
AU - Reiland, Thomas W.
T2 - Bulletin of the Australian Mathematical Society
AB - The concept of invexity is extended to nondifferentiable functions. Characterisations of nonsmooth invexity are derived as well as results in unconstrained and constrained optimisation and duality. The principal analytic tool is the generalised gradient of Clarke for Lipschitz functions.
DA - 1990/12//
PY - 1990/12//
DO - 10.1017/S0004972700028604
VL - 42
IS - 3
SP - 437-446
J2 - Bull. Austral. Math. Soc.
LA - en
OP -
SN - 0004-9727 1755-1633
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0004972700028604
DB - Crossref
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - Regression and calibration with nonconstant error variance
AU - Davidian, Marie
AU - Haaland, Perry D.
T2 - Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems
AB - Abstract Davidian, M. and Haaland, P., 1990. Regression and calibration with nonconstant error variance. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems , 9: 231–248. Ordinary least squares regression analysis is generally inappropriate for calibration and regression problems when the usual assumption of constant variance across all observations does not hold. Estimators of regression parameters are of relatively poor quality and the resulting inference can be misleading. The use of standard data transformations is a common alternative but may not provide enough flexibility for some cases. The use of weighted regression with weights estimated from replicates is generally unreliable for reasonable sample sizes. However, when the error variance changes systematically with the mean response or other variables, generalized least squares (GLS) and variance function estimation (VFE) methods can be used. The GLS-VFE approach allows the experimenter to specify a model for the systematic change in variance, estimate unknown parameters, and to use this information to provide more efficient estimates of the regression parameters. In this tutorial, GLS-VFE methods are introduced and described in the context of regression and calibration. An example of calibration for a chemical assay is used to motivate discussion and illustrate the implementation of these methods using standard software packages.
DA - 1990/12//
PY - 1990/12//
DO - 10.1016/0169-7439(90)80074-g
VL - 9
IS - 3
SP - 231-248
J2 - Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems
LA - en
OP -
SN - 0169-7439
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-7439(90)80074-g
DB - Crossref
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - Estimation of variance functions in assays with possibly unequal replication and nonnormal data
AU - Davidian, M.
T2 - Biometrika
AB - SUMMARY Estimation of parametric variance functions using transformations of standard deviations based on replication at each design point is common in, but not limited to, assay analysis. It is shown that ignoring unequal replication can lead to bias and inefficiency in estimation. Efficiency comparisons for different transformations for nonnormal distributions are given. A method to account for bias is described that can offer robustness to nonnormality and leads to a comparison of Gini's mean difference to sample standard deviation. A method for computing all of these estimators using standard software is described.
DA - 1990/3/1/
PY - 1990/3/1/
DO - 10.1093/biomet/77.1.43
VL - 77
IS - 1
SP - 43-54
J2 - Biometrika
LA - en
OP -
SN - 0006-3444 1464-3510
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biomet/77.1.43
DB - Crossref
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - THE BENDING BEHAVIOR OF PLAIN-WOVEN FABRICS .3. THE CASE OF BILINEAR THREAD-BENDING BEHAVIOR AND THE EFFECT OF FABRIC SET
AU - GHOSH, TK
AU - BATRA, SK
AU - BARKER, RL
T2 - JOURNAL OF THE TEXTILE INSTITUTE
AB - In the preceding paper, an elastica-based computational model of the bending behaviour of plain-woven fabrics assuming linear bending behaviour of the constituent threads, together with appropriate computational techniques, was described. In the present paper, bilinear thread-bending behaviour, as proposed by Huang, is considered. In the first model, the threads were considered to be unset, i.e., if released from the fabric, they would straighten out completely, but in the present paper varying degrees of set are considered for both the earlier model and the present model. The computational scheme developed requires the minimum interference from the user to solve the associated boundary-value problems. Contrary to the earlier work of Skelton and Schoppee, the model predicts an increase in contact forces at the thread-crossover points owing to increasing fabric curvature. This increase is found to be larger for fabrics with higher degrees of set and is in agreement with the observations made by G.M. Abbott, Grosberg, and Leaf. The model also predicts a higher fabric-bending rigidity for an increase in the degree of set. This is in contradiction to earlier observations. The calculated fabric-bending rigidity is generally higher than experimentally obtained values. This is found to be a consequence of yarn cross-sectional deformation during fabric formation or in later processes, even for monofilament woven fabrics.
DA - 1990///
PY - 1990///
DO - 10.1080/00405009008658710
VL - 81
IS - 3
SP - 272-287
SN - 1754-2340
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - THE BENDING BEHAVIOR OF PLAIN-WOVEN FABRICS .2. THE CASE OF LINEAR THREAD-BENDING BEHAVIOR
AU - GHOSH, TK
AU - BATRA, SK
AU - BARKER, RL
T2 - JOURNAL OF THE TEXTILE INSTITUTE
AB - In the preceding paper, a critical review of the state of knowledge of the bending behaviour of yarns and woven fabrics was reported. In the present one, an elastica-based computational model of plain-woven fabrics in pure bending is developed. The thread moment/curvature relation is considered to be linear. Various contact conditions at the thread-crossover points are also considered. The threads are further considered to be unset, i.e., if released from the fabric, they would be completely uncrimped. The computational scheme developed requires the minimum interference from the user to solve the associated boundary-value problems.
DA - 1990///
PY - 1990///
DO - 10.1080/00405009008658709
VL - 81
IS - 3
SP - 255-271
SN - 1754-2340
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - THE BENDING BEHAVIOR OF PLAIN-WOVEN FABRICS .1. A CRITICAL-REVIEW
AU - GHOSH, TK
AU - BATRA, SK
AU - BARKER, RL
T2 - JOURNAL OF THE TEXTILE INSTITUTE
AB - The mechanics of the bending of yarns and woven fabrics have received considerable attention in the literature. Efforts have been made to obtain analytical relations between yarn-bending behaviour and constituent-fibre properties. In the case of fabrics, the objectives have been to obtain analytical relations between fabric-bending behaviour and constituent-fibre behaviour or yarn behaviour, on the assumption of a given geometrical disposition of fibres or yarns in the fabric. In this paper, a review of these efforts is made. Comparisons of the theoretical models with available experimental observations are discussed.
DA - 1990///
PY - 1990///
DO - 10.1080/00405009008658708
VL - 81
IS - 3
SP - 245-254
SN - 1754-2340
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL RATES OF CULEX-QUINQUEFASCIATUS AND AEDES-AEGYPTI (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE)
AU - RUEDA, LM
AU - PATEL, KJ
AU - AXTELL, RC
AU - STINNER, RE
T2 - JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY
AB - Development, growth, and survival of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) were determined at six constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 34 degrees C). The Sharpe & DeMichele four-parameter model with high-temperature inhibition described the temperature-dependent median developmental rates of both mosquito species. In both species, body size generally decreased as temperature increased. Head capsule widths in all instars in both species were significantly greater at 15 than at 30-34 degrees C. Except for the third instar of Ae. aegypti, the larval body lengths in both species were significantly greater at 15 than at 34 degrees C. All instars and pupae of both species and the adults in Cx. quinquefasciatus were significantly heavier at 15 than at 27-34 degrees C. In Cx. quinquefasciatus, survival from eclosion to adult emergence was highest in the range from 20 to 30 degrees C (85-90%) and dropped drastically at 15 (38%) and 34 degrees C (42%). In Ae. aegypti, survival to adult stage was high at 20 (92%) and 27 degrees C (90%) and lowest at 15 degrees C (3%).
DA - 1990/9//
PY - 1990/9//
DO - 10.1093/jmedent/27.5.892
VL - 27
IS - 5
SP - 892-898
SN - 1938-2928
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT DEVELOPMENT AND PARASITISM RATES OF 4 SPECIES OF PTEROMALIDAE (HYMENOPTERA) PARASITOIDS OF HOUSE-FLY (MUSCA-DOMESTICA) PUPAE
AU - MANN, JA
AU - AXTELL, RC
AU - STINNER, RE
T2 - MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY
AB - Abstract. Parasitoid development, parasitoid-induced host mortality and parasitoid progeny emergence were determined at five constant temperatures for Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan and Legner, Spalangia earneroni Perkins and Spalangia endius Walker using pupae of the house fly, Musca domestica L., as hosts. At temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 35oC the median development times (days from oviposition to adult emergence), respectively, were M.raptor (28.4, 20.7, 14.3, 14.5), M.zaraptor (30.6, 22.8, 14.1, 14.2), S.cameroni (55.6,35.2, 21.8,25.0) and S.endius (52.4, 31.5,16.3,14.6). All species failed to emerge at 15oC. Using densities of five parasitoids and 100 hosts and a 24 h exposure period, Muscidifurax species oviposited at a greater rate over a wider range of temperatures than Spalangia species. At 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35oC the mean number of pupae killed per parasitoid were, respectively, M.raptor (1.4, 7.4,10.5, 13.7,14.1), M.zaraptor (0.0, 3.3, 8.9,14.4,15.0), S.cameroni (0.0, 7.8, 11.0, 11.9, 7.4), S.endius (0.6, 4.0, 7.5, 12.0, 11.7), and means of the number of parasitoid progeny per parasitoid were, respectively, M.raptor (0.2, 5.2, 7.9, 11.8, 11.6), M.zaraptor (1.3, 4.4, 8.2, 13.0, 13.7), S.cameroni (0.0, 2.4, 4.7, 5.1, 1.0), S.endius (0.0, 0.9, 3.4, 7.5, 4.9). Development and ovipositional activity in S.cameroni was strongly inhibited at 35oC. The model by Sharpe & DeMichele (1977) was used to describe temperature-dependent development and the number of parasitoid progeny produced per parasitoid at temperatures of 15–30oC in all species.
DA - 1990/7//
PY - 1990/7//
DO - 10.1111/j.1365-2915.1990.tb00436.x
VL - 4
IS - 3
SP - 245-253
SN - 0269-283X
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - PARASITISM OF HOUSE-FLY (MUSCA-DOMESTICA) PUPAE BY 4 SPECIES OF PTEROMALIDAE (HYMENOPTERA) - EFFECTS OF HOST PARASITOID DENSITIES AND HOST DISTRIBUTION
AU - MANN, JA
AU - STINNER, RE
AU - AXTELL, RC
T2 - MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY
AB - Parasitoid-induced mortality of house fly, Musca domestica L., pupae and parasitoid progeny emergence by four species of pteromalid parasitoids, Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders, M.zaraptor Kogan & Legner, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and S.endius Walker, were determined for a 24 h exposure period using parasitoid: host ratios ranging from 1:2 to 1:50. When the number of parasitoids was held constant (n = 5) and the numbers of hosts varied, and when the number of hosts was held constant (n = 100) and the number of parasitoids varied, both the number of pupae killed per parasitoid and the number of parasitoid progeny per parasitoid increased with increasing parasitoid:host ratios to reach an upper limit asymptotically. Maximum values were, respectively: M.raptor (14.7, 11.1), M.zaraptor (12.3, 9.3), S.cameroni (16.9, 5.5), S.endius (14.8, 9.7) with no consistent effects attributed to parasitoid interference. For M.raptor and S.cameroni at parasitoid:host ratios of 1:10, the pupal mortality and progeny emergence were determined for a 24 h exposure period when hosts were distributed in poultry manure at four levels of aggregation ranging from clumped to uniform. Pupal mortality was least in clumped distributions, while parasitoid progeny emergence was not significantly different.
DA - 1990/7//
PY - 1990/7//
DO - 10.1111/j.1365-2915.1990.tb00433.x
VL - 4
IS - 3
SP - 235-243
SN - 0269-283X
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - MACMOD: A simulation model of Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Acarina: Macrochelidae) population dynamics and rates of predation on immature house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)
AU - Geden, C. J.
AU - Stinner, R. E.
AU - Kramer, D. A.
AU - Axtell, R. C.
T2 - Environmental Entomology
DA - 1990///
PY - 1990///
VL - 19
SP - 578-586
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - Longevity and fecundity of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) as a function of temperature
AU - Fletcher, M. G.
AU - Axtell, R. C.
AU - Stinner, R. E.
T2 - Journal of Medical Entomology
AB - Longevity and fecundity of adult house flies were determined at constant temperatures of 20, 25, 30, and 35 degrees C. At the four temperatures, respectively, the median mortality rates (1/days to 50% mortality) for females were 0.023, 0.041, 0.060, and 0.099 and for males were 0.029, 0.047, 0.066, and 0.085. The numbers of days for 50% of the eggs to be deposited for each temperature were 34.5, 21.3, 10.2 and 7.1, respectively. The total numbers of eggs deposited per female for each temperature were 184, 729, 709, and 506, respectively. Models were developed for longevity and fecundity and their distributions as functions of temperature.
DA - 1990///
PY - 1990///
DO - 10.1093/jmedent/27.5.922
VL - 27
SP - 922-926
ER -
TY - CHAP
TI - Computer simulation modeling of fly management
AU - Axtell, R. C.
AU - Stinner, R. E.
T2 - Biocontrol of arthropods affecting livestock and poultry
A2 - Rutz, D. A.
A2 - Patterson, R. S.
PY - 1990///
SP - 265-291
PB - Boulder, CO: Westview Press
SN - 0813378508
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON YARN UNEVENNESS - COMPONENTS AND DETERMINANTS OF GENERAL UNEVENNESS
AU - ZEIDMAN, MI
AU - SUH, MW
AU - BATRA, SK
T2 - TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL
AB - A simple analysis of the local linear density of a yarn yields an equation of its overall variance, which has three components: variance of the number of fibers per cross section, variance of the mean local fiber fineness, and that of the mean parameter of fiber inclination relative to yam axis. Further mathematical analysis of the component variances reveals a set of determining factors: the sequence of the fiber ends along the yam, the distribution of the fiber length, fiber fineness and its irregularity, the irregularity of the fiber configuration relative to the yam axis, and the blend uniformity along the yarn. To help in this analysis, a representation of the yarn, free of any structural hypothesis, is derived from the way the yam emerges from a ring spinning process: a superposition of elementary strips, each resulting from an initial sliver. This represen tation demonstrates that inverse proportionality between the squared CV of the yarn and its mean number of fibers in cross section holds for any yarn, including those idealized by Poissonian or other similar models.
DA - 1990/1//
PY - 1990/1//
DO - 10.1177/004051759006000101
VL - 60
IS - 1
SP - 1-6
SN - 1746-7748
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - LONG-TERM RESPONSE TO ARTIFICIAL SELECTION WITH MULTIPLE ALLELES - STUDY BY SIMULATIONS
AU - ZENG, ZB
AU - COCKERHAM, CC
T2 - THEORETICAL POPULATION BIOLOGY
AB - The effect of multiple alleles on long-term response to selection is examined by simulations using a pseudosampling technique to simulate the multidimensional diffusion process. The effects of alleles are independently drawn from a normal distribution and the initial frequencies of alleles are assumed either to be equal or to be drawn from a neutral equilibrium population. With these two initial gene frequency distributions we examined various properties of the selection response process for the effects of number of alleles and selection intensity. For neutral initial frequencies the effects of multiple alleles compared with two alleles are minor on the ratio of final to initial response (E(R infinity/E(R1)) and the half life of response (t0.5), but are significant on the variance of response. Under certain conditions the variance of the selection limit can even increase as selection gets stronger. For equal initial frequencies the effects of multiple alleles are, however, minor on the ratio of the variance of the selection limit to the initial genetic variance, but E(R infinity/E(R1) and t0.5 increase as the number of alleles increases. The results show that for certain statistics the effects of multiple alleles can be minimized by an appropriate transformation of parameters for given initial gene frequencies, but the effects cannot, in general, be removed by any single transformation or reparameterization of parameters.
DA - 1990/2//
PY - 1990/2//
DO - 10.1016/0040-5809(90)90039-X
VL - 37
IS - 1
SP - 254-272
SN - 1096-0325
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - How informative is Wright's estimator of the number of genes affecting a quantitative character?
AU - Zeng, Z. B.
AU - Houle, D.
AU - Cockerham, C. C.
T2 - Genetics
DA - 1990///
PY - 1990///
VL - 126
IS - 1
SP - 235
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - SOYWEED - A SIMULATION-MODEL OF SOYBEAN AND COMMON COCKLEBUR GROWTH AND COMPETITION
AU - WILKERSON, GG
AU - JONES, JW
AU - COBLE, HD
AU - GUNSOLUS, JL
T2 - AGRONOMY JOURNAL
AB - (...) The objective of this study was to develop a simulation model of crop/weed competition which could be used to investigate the effects of environmental conditions on weed and crop growth. A previously developed soybean crop growth model was used to simulate the growth of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. A weed growth model was developed and coupled with the soybean model to describe growth of weed and soybean growing together and competiting for resources. Published data from a field experiment were used to determine model parameters for common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) (...)
DA - 1990///
PY - 1990///
DO - 10.2134/agronj1990.00021962008200050033x
VL - 82
IS - 5
SP - 1003-1010
SN - 0002-1962
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - THE VARIANCE OF SAMPLE HETEROZYGOSITY
AU - WEIR, BS
AU - REYNOLDS, J
AU - DODDS, KG
T2 - THEORETICAL POPULATION BIOLOGY
AB - The variance of sample heterozygosity, averaged over several loci, is studied in a variety of situations. The variance depends on the sampling implicit in the mating system as well as on that explicit in the loci scored and individuals sampled. There are also effects of allelic distributions over loci and of linkage or linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci. Results are obtained for populations in drift and mutation balance, for infinite populations undergoing mixed self and random mating, and for finite monoecious populations with or without selfing. For unlinked loci in drift/mutation balance, variances appear to be lessened more by increasing the number of loci scored than by increasing the number of individuals sampled. For infinite populations under the mixed self and random mating system, however, the reverse is true. Methods for estimating the variance of sample heterozygosity are discussed, with attention being paid to unbalanced data where not all loci are scored in all individuals.
DA - 1990/2//
PY - 1990/2//
DO - 10.1016/0040-5809(90)90038-W
VL - 37
IS - 1
SP - 235-253
SN - 0040-5809
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - SAMPLING STRATEGIES FOR DISTANCES BETWEEN DNA-SEQUENCES
AU - WEIR, BS
AU - BASTEN, CJ
T2 - BIOMETRICS
AB - An international effort is now underway to obtain the DNA sequence for the entire human genome (Watson and Jordan, 1989, Genomics 5, 654-656; Barnhart, 1989, Genomics 5, 657-660). This Human Genome Initiative will generate sequence data from several species other than humans, and will result in several copies per species of at least some regions of the genome. Although the project has generated much interest, it is but one aspect of the widespread effort to generate DNA sequence data. Published sequences are collected in common databases, and release 63 of GenBank in March 1990 contained 40,127,752 bases from 33,337 reported sequences (News from GenBank 3; Mountain View, California: Intelligenetics, Inc., 1990). Large though this database is, it is only about 1% of the number of bases in the human genome. Interpretations of data of such magnitude are going to require the collaborative efforts of biometricians and molecular biologists, and an aim of this paper is to show that there is also a role for readers of this journal in the design of surveys of DNA sequences. Discussion here will center on the use of sequence data in evolutionary studies, where some region of DNA is sequenced in several different species. The object is to infer the evolutionary history of that particular region, or of the species themselves. Statistical issues in the very important studies on sequences to locate and characterize regions responsible for human diseases will not be addressed here. We will discuss appropriate ways of measuring distances between DNA sequences and of predicting the sampling properties of the distances. There are procedures for inferring evolutionary histories for a set of elements that depend on a matrix of distances between each pair of elements, and the precision of resulting trees must be influenced by the precision of the distances. We will show that account needs to be taken of two sampling processes--the sampling of sequences by the investigator ("statistical sampling"), and the sampling of genetic material involved in the formation of offspring from a parental population ("genetic sampling").
DA - 1990/9//
PY - 1990/9//
DO - 10.2307/2532079
VL - 46
IS - 3
SP - 551-572
SN - 0006-341X
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - OZONE EFFECTS ON AGRICULTURAL CROPS - STATISTICAL METHODOLOGIES AND ESTIMATED DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS
AU - LESSER, VM
AU - RAWLINGS, JO
AU - SPRUILL, SE
AU - SOMERVILLE, MC
T2 - CROP SCIENCE
AB - The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) began in 1980 to coordinate research on the impact of ozone (O3) on agricultural crops. During a 7-yr period, the program investigated 14 crops at sites across the country in a total of 41 studies. A major objective was to develop dose-response relationships between yield of major agricultural crop species and ozone pollution in order to estimate the economic impact of ozone pollution. This paper outlines the statistical methodologies used in combining the dose-response information for each species over all NCLAN studies, and summarizes the ozone dose-response relationships obtained. Differences in experimental designs, treatment combinations, and levels of ozone across studies invalidated the conventional analysis of variance approach to combining information across studies. Regression analyses, with weighted least squares and transformations as needed, were used. Dose-response relationships between yield and ozone were quantified with the nonlinear Weibull response equation and with confidence interval estimates of percentage yield losses. Significant yield losses from ozone were found for 13 of 14 crops studied. The nature of the yield response to ozone differed among crops with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] being the most sensitive and showing a nearly linear response. Losses from ozone at 0.06 μL L−1 compared with 0.025 μL L−1 were estimated as high as 20%. The impact of ozone was shown to be affected by level of moisture stress but not by SO2.
DA - 1990///
PY - 1990///
DO - 10.2135/cropsci1990.0011183X003000010033x
VL - 30
IS - 1
SP - 148-155
SN - 0011-183X
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - ADEQUACY OF INTERVAL ESTIMATES OF YIELD RESPONSES TO OZONE ESTIMATED FROM NCLAN DATA
AU - SOMERVILLE, MC
AU - DASSEL, KA
AU - RAWLINGS, JO
T2 - CROP SCIENCE
AB - Relative yield losses from O3 have been estimated by the National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) using a nonlinear Weibull response model. The estimated losses were presented in terms of confidence interval estimates based on first-order linear approximations of variances and normality of estimates. Such interval estimates (Wald estimates) from nonlinear models can be inadequate. Nine Weibull response equations estimated from NCLAN studies were used to assess the adequacy of Wald confidence interval estimates by comparison with interval estimates based on the likelihood ratio test. Three response equations from individual studies were used for illustration of second-order adjustments to the Wald estimates and the use of measures of parameter-effects curvature as flags for cases where linear approximations may be inadequate. The Wald interval estimates were clearly inadequate in two of the three individual studies, which had been chosen to represent cases most likely to show inadequacy because of limited coverage of the response curve and/or high variability. In the third study, which had good coverage of the response curve and relatively low variability, the Wald confidence intervals were nearly identical to the likelihood ratio intervals. Measures of parameter effects curvature identified the two cases where the linear approximation was inadequate and showed whether the second-order adjustments would result in acceptable confidence intervals. Comparisons suggested that Wald confidence interval estimates provided satisfactory approximations for NCLAN response curves that had been computed from data involving more than one experiment, and even for individual experiments where there was adequate coverage of the response curve and moderate variability.
DA - 1990///
PY - 1990///
DO - 10.2135/cropsci1990.0011183X003000040014x
VL - 30
IS - 4
SP - 836-844
SN - 0011-183X
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - QUANTITATIVE GENETIC COMPONENTS WITHIN RESTRICTED POPULATIONS
AU - JIANG, CJ
AU - COCKERHAM, CC
T2 - CROP SCIENCE
AB - Breeders often work with populations with a restricted genetic base either from the maintenance of varieties as small finite populations or from the initiation of populations with a few individuals or inbred lines. It is important to know the consequences of these restrictions on quantitative variation in comparison to that for large noninbred populations. To accomplish this the quantitative genetic variation within restricted populations is formulated in terms of the quantitative genetic components in the noninbred ancestral population. (...)
DA - 1990///
PY - 1990///
DO - 10.2135/cropsci1990.0011183X003000010002x
VL - 30
IS - 1
SP - 7-12
SN - 0011-183X
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - INTERCULTIVAR AND INTRACULTIVAR EFFECTS OF SELECTION ON HETEROSIS
AU - JIANG, CJ
AU - COCKERHAM, CC
AU - MOLL, RH
T2 - CROP SCIENCE
AB - The effect of selection on heterosis depends on the gene action and the type of selection. Intracultivar (W) selection, full-sib family selection within each of two cultivars, and intercultivar (R) selection, reciprocal recurrent selection between the two cultivars, were contrasted for their effects on heterosis. The cultivars were considered to be random replicate populations from an ancestral population. The relatedness of individuals within cultivars and the degree of divergence between cultivars were formalized in terms of identity by descent (IBD) measures for two, three, two-pair, and four genes a locus and joint IBD measures for genes at each of two loci. Quantitative genetic components for a model that is general for additive, dominance, and additive by additive (a ✕ a) effects with an arbitrary number of alleles were defined for the ancestral population, and selection responses were formulated for the cultivars and the hybrid for each selection method with the aid of the IBD measures. A further analysis was made utilizing a biological building block model of gene effects. The contribution of a ✕ a effects was such that they reduced heterosis from W selection, but slightly increased heterosis from R selection. It was concluded that R selection always increased heterosis while W selection could increase or decrease heterosis, but decreased heterosis for a preponderance of the genetic parameters considered.
DA - 1990///
PY - 1990///
DO - 10.2135/cropsci1990.0011183X003000010010x
VL - 30
IS - 1
SP - 44-49
SN - 0011-183X
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - DYNAMIC-MODELS OF PESTICIDE EFFECTIVENESS
AU - SCHAALJE, GB
T2 - ENVIRONMENTAL ENTOMOLOGY
AB - A general procedure for formulating mathematical models of pesticide effectiveness is presented, consisting of a differential equation for deposition and degradation of the pesticide in the environment, a differential equation for intake and clearance of the pesticide by the insects, and a functional equation relating the hazard function of the insects to their curve of pesticide retention. Differences among previously developed models for pesticide-induced mortality have not been recognized, and their application to new situations has been limited by these unrecognized differences. Examples of the proposed procedure are developed and applied to two contrasting data sets from the literature. Because the model is formulated using the hazard function, the procedure can be used for modeling and analyzing data from many different kinds of studies and for comparing results from different kinds of studies.
DA - 1990/6//
PY - 1990/6//
DO - 10.1093/ee/19.3.439
VL - 19
IS - 3
SP - 439-447
SN - 0046-225X
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - A DYNAMIC GROWTH-MODEL OF VEGETATIVE SOYA BEAN-PLANTS - MODEL STRUCTURE AND BEHAVIOR UNDER VARYING ROOT TEMPERATURE AND NITROGEN CONCENTRATION
AU - LIM, JT
AU - WILKERSON, GG
AU - RAPER, CD
AU - GOLD, HJ
T2 - JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BOTANY
AB - A differential equation model of vegetative growth of the soya bean plant (Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom') was developed to account for plant growth in a phytotron system under variation of root temperature and nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution. The model was tested by comparing model outputs with data from four different experiments. Model predictions agreed fairly well with measured plant performance over a wide range of root temperatures and over a range of nitrogen concentrations in nutrient solution between 0.5 and 10.0 mmol NO3- in the phytotron environment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to changes in parameters relating to carbohydrate concentration in the plant and nitrogen uptake rate.
DA - 1990/2//
PY - 1990/2//
DO - 10.1093/jxb/41.2.229
VL - 41
IS - 223
SP - 229-241
SN - 0022-0957
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - Decision analysis as a tool for integrating simulation with expert systems when risk and uncertainty are important
AU - Gold, H. J.
AU - Wilkerson, G. G.
AU - Yu, Y. N.
AU - Stinner, R. E.
T2 - Computers and Electronics in Agriculture
DA - 1990///
PY - 1990///
VL - 4
IS - 4
SP - 343
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - GENETIC AND GERM PLASM STOCKS WORTH CONSERVING
AU - GOODMAN, MM
T2 - JOURNAL OF HEREDITY
AB - The relative costs and benefits of genetic stock collections and germ plasm collections are discussed. The status of national and international collections is compared with the needs of plant breeders and geneticists. There is an International need for germ plasm systems that emphasize the use and employment of materials rather than acquisition and storage. For base collections to function, they must provide for regeneration, characterization, documentation, and evaluation of their materials. The quality of a germ plasm system should be judged on the basis of the quality of the materials available to scientists. Adequate quantities of high-quality seed that are of known provenience, spanning the range of known genetic diversity, promptly delivered, and well described constitute the minimum that should be expected. All too often such minimal requirements are not met.
DA - 1990///
PY - 1990///
DO - 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a110919
VL - 81
IS - 1
SP - 11-16
SN - 1465-7333
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - EFFECT OF GENE CONVERSION ON VARIANCES OF DIGENETIC IDENTITY MEASURES
AU - BASTEN, CJ
AU - WEIR, BS
T2 - THEORETICAL POPULATION BIOLOGY
AB - The variances and covariances of digenic descent measures are studied for a two-locus model incorporating mutation, gene conversion, recombination, drift, and finite sampling. Gene conversion can occur between allelic pairs of genes or between non-allelic pairs on the same or different gametes within individuals. Most interest therefore centers on pairs of genes, and five digenic identity measures are required. The behavior over time of these measures is studied, with an emphasis on the effects of gene conversion. Because of the stochastic nature of the forces of drift, recombination, mutation, and conversion, the actual identity status of gene pairs can vary from expectation among replicate populations. To study this variation we compute the expected variances and covariances of the measures, and show that this requires the introduction of trigenic and quadrigenic measures. Allowing for conversion between genes on different gametes requires a large number of these higher-order measures.
DA - 1990/10//
PY - 1990/10//
DO - 10.1016/0040-5809(90)90007-I
VL - 38
IS - 2
SP - 125-148
SN - 1096-0325
ER -
TY - JOUR
TI - Statistical-inference for capture-recapture experiments
AU - Pollock, K. H.
AU - Nichols, J. D.
AU - Brownie, C.
AU - Hines, J. E.
T2 - Wildlife Monographs
DA - 1990///
PY - 1990///
IS - 107
SP - 1-97
ER -