2023 journal article
Pacemaker-lead-associated thrombosis in dogs: a multicenter retrospective study
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology.
Pacemaker implantation is the treatment of choice for clinically relevant bradyarrhythmias. Pacemaker-lead-associated thrombosis (PLAT) occurs in 23.0-45.0% of people with permanent transvenous pacemakers. Serious thromboembolic complications are reported in 0.6-3.5%. The incidence of PLAT in dogs is unknown.multicenter retrospective study of seven centers with 606 client-owned dogs undergoing permanent pacemaker implantation between 2012 and 2019. 260 dogs with a transvenous pacemaker with echocardiographic follow-up, 268 dogs with a transvenous pacemaker without echocardiographic follow-up and 78 dogs with an epicardial pacemaker.10.4% (27/260) of dogs with transvenous pacemakers and echocardiographic follow-up had PLAT identified. The median time to diagnosis was 175 days (6-1853 days). Pacemaker-lead-associated thrombosis was an incidental finding in 15/27 (55.6%) dogs. Of dogs with a urine protein:creatinine ratio measured at pacemaker implantation, dogs with PLAT were more likely to have proteinuria at pacemaker implantation vs. dogs without PLAT (6/6 (100.0%) vs. 21/52 (40.4%), P=0.007). Urine protein:creatinine ratio was measured in 12/27 (44.4%) dogs at PLAT diagnosis, with proteinuria identified in 10/12 (83.3%) dogs. Anti-thrombotic drugs were used following the identification of PLAT in 22/27 (81.5%) dogs. The thrombus resolved in 9/15 (60.0%) dogs in which follow-up echocardiography was performed. Dogs with PLAT had shorter survival times from implantation compared to those without PLAT (677 days [9-1988 days] vs. 1105 days [1-2661 days], P=0.003).Pacemaker-lead-associated thrombosis is identified in 10.4% (27/260) of dogs following transvenous pacing, is associated with proteinuria, can cause significant morbidity, and is associated with reduced survival times.