2017 journal article

Protection of human influenza vaccines against a reassortant swine influenza virus of pandemic H1N1 origin using a pig model.

Research in Veterinary Science.

MeSH headings : Animals; Cross Reactions; Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype; Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype / immunology; Influenza Vaccines / immunology; Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control; Orthomyxoviridae Infections / veterinary; Orthomyxoviridae Infections / virology; Reassortant Viruses; Swine; Swine Diseases / prevention & control; Swine Diseases / virology; Virus Shedding
Source: ORCID
Added: July 6, 2023

Since the pandemic H1N1 emergence in 2009 (pdmH1N1), many reassortant pdmH1N1 viruses emerged and found circulating in the pig population worldwide. Currently, commercial human subunit vaccines are used commonly to prevent the influenza symptom based on the WHO recommendation. In case of current reassortant swine influenza viruses transmitting from pigs to humans, the efficacy of current human influenza vaccines is of interest. In this study, influenza A negative pigs were vaccinated with selected commercial human subunit vaccines and challenged with rH3N2. All sera were tested with both HI and SN assays using four representative viruses from the surveillance data in 2012 (enH1N1, pdmH1N1, rH1N2 and rH3N2). The results showed no significant differences in clinical signs and macroscopic and microscopic findings among groups. However, all pig sera from vaccinated groups had protective HI titers to the enH1N1, pdmH1N1 and rH1N2 at 21DPV onward and had protective SN titers only to pdmH1N1and rH1N2 at 21DPV onward. SN test results appeared more specific than those of HI tests. All tested sera had no cross-reactivity against the rH3N2. Both studied human subunit vaccines failed to protect and to stop viral shedding with no evidence of serological reaction against rH3N2. SIV surveillance is essential for monitoring a novel SIV emergence potentially for zoonosis.