2023 journal article
Early evaluation of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on antimicrobial use in food animals on antimicrobial resistance trends reported by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (2012-2019)
ONE HEALTH, 17.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest challenges to global public health. To address this issue in the US, governmental agencies have implemented system-wide guidance frameworks and recommendations aimed at reducing antimicrobial use. In particular, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prohibited the extra-label use of cephalosporins in food animals in 2012 and issued the guidance for industry (GFI) #213 about establishing a framework to phase out the use of all medically relevant drugs for growth promotion in 2012. Also in 2015, the FDA implemented veterinary feed directive (VFD) drug regulations (GFI# 120) to control the use of certain antimicrobials. To assess the potential early effects of these FDA actions and other concurrent antimicrobial stewardship actions on AMR in the food chain, we compared the patterns of the phenotypic (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and percentage of resistance) and genotypic resistances for selected antimicrobials before and after 2016 across different enteric pathogen species, as reported by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). Most of the antimicrobials analyzed at the phenotypic level followed a downward trend in MIC after implementing the guidance. Although, most of those changes were less than one 1-fold dilution. On the other hand, compared to MIC results, the results based on phenotypic resistance prevalence evidenced higher differences in both directions between the pre- and post-guidance implementation period. Also, we did not find relevant differences in the presence of AMR genes between pre- and post-VFD drug regulations. We concluded that the FDA guidance on antimicrobial use has not led to substantial reductions in antimicrobial drug resistance yet.