2022 journal article
Instructors' conceptualization and implementation of scaffolding in online higher education courses
Journal of Computing in Higher Education.
Abstract This multiple case study explores how instructors conceptualize and employ scaffolding in online courses. Participants included full time faculty ( n = 4) who have designed and taught at least one online course within the past 12 months. Data sources included pre-interview surveys, semi-structured interviews, and online course observations. Data were analyzed by employing a general analytical strategy for developing a case description (Yin, 2018). The results showed that (a) instructors define scaffolding as a support to help students achieve course outcomes and (b) instructors implement different types of scaffolding (i.e., conceptual, metacognitive, procedural, strategic, and motivational) in hard and soft scaffolding forms. The results also showed that instructors' conceptualization and implementation of scaffolding differed based on their discipline and teaching philosophy, and the unique features of online courses. Implications for practice and research are discussed.