2023 journal article
In Ovo Vaccination with Recombinant Herpes Virus of the Turkey-Laryngotracheitis Vaccine Adjuvanted with CpG-Oligonucleotide Provides Protection against a Viral Challenge in Broiler Chickens
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important disease in chickens. We previously showed that an in ovo adjuvantation of recombinant herpesvirus of the turkey-Laryngotracheitis (rHVT-LT) vaccine with CpG-oligonucleotides (ODN) can boost vaccine-induced responses in one-day-old broiler chickens. Here, we evaluated the protective efficacy of in ovo administered rHVT-LT + CpG-ODN vaccination against a wild-type ILT virus (ILTV) challenge at 28 days of age and assessed splenic immune gene expression as well as cellular responses. A chicken-embryo-origin (CEO)-ILT vaccine administered in water at 14 days of age was also used as a comparative control for the protection assessment. The results showed that the rHVT-LT + CpG-ODN or the CEO vaccinations provided significant protection against the ILTV challenge and that the level of protection induced by both the vaccines was statistically similar. The protected birds had a significantly upregulated expression of interferon (IFN)γ or interleukin (IL)-12 cytokine genes. Furthermore, the chickens vaccinated with the rHVT-LT + CpG-ODN or CEO vaccine had a significantly higher frequency of γδ T cells and activated CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, compared to the unvaccinated-ILTV challenge control. Collectively, our findings suggest that CpG-ODN can be used as an effective adjuvant for rHVT-LT in ovo vaccination to induce protective immunity against ILT in broiler chickens.