2023 journal article

Dietary phenolics and their microbial metabolites are poor inhibitors of trimethylamine oxidation to trimethylamine N-oxide by hepatic flavin monooxygenase 3


author keywords: Atherosclerosis; Cardiovascular disease; FMO3; Trimethylamine; Trimethylamine N-oxide
Source: Web Of Science
Added: January 2, 2024

High circulating levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) have been associated with cardiovascular disease risk. TMAO is formed through a microbiome-host pathway utilizing primarily dietary choline as a substrate. Specific gut microbiota transform choline into trimethylamine (TMA), and, when absorbed, host hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) oxidizes TMA into TMAO. Chlorogenic acid and its metabolites reduce microbial TMA production in vitro. However, little is known regarding the potential for chlorogenic acid and its bioavailable metabolites to inhibit the last step: hepatic conversion of TMA to TMAO. We developed a screening methodology to study FMO3-catalyzed production of TMAO from TMA. HepG2 cells were unable to oxidize TMA into TMAO due to their lack of FMO3 expression. Although Hepa-1 cells did express FMO3 when pretreated with TMA and NADPH, they lacked enzymatic activity to produce TMAO. Rat hepatic microsomes contained active FMO3. Optimal reaction conditions were: 50 µM TMA, 0.2 mM NADPH, and 33 µL microsomes/mL reaction. Methimazole (a known FMO3 competitive substrate) at 200 µM effectively reduced FMO3-catalyzed conversion of TMA to TMAO. However, bioavailable chlorogenic acid metabolites did not generally inhibit FMO3 at physiological (1 µM) nor supra-physiological (50 µM) doses. Thus, the effects of chlorogenic acid in regulating TMAO levels in vivo are unlikely to occur through direct FMO3 enzyme inhibition. Potential effects on FMO3 expression remain unknown. Intestinal inhibition of TMA production and/or absorption are thus likely their primary mechanisms of action.