2018 journal article
Improved osseointegration with as-built electron beam melted textured implants and improved peri-implant bone volume with whole body vibration
MEDICAL ENGINEERING & PHYSICS, 58, 64–71.
Transcutaneous osseointegrated prostheses provide stable connections to the skeleton while eliminating skin lesions experienced with socket prosthetics. Additive manufacturing can create custom textured implants capable of interfacing with amputees' residual bones. Our objective was to compare osseointegration of textured surface implants made by electron beam melting (EBM), an additive manufacturing process, to machine threaded implants. Whole body vibration was investigated to accelerate osseointegration. Two cohorts of Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral, titanium implants (EBM vs. threaded) in their tibiae. One cohort comprising five groups vibrated at 45 Hz: 0.0 (control), 0.15, 0.3, 0.6 or 1.2 g was followed for six weeks. Osseointegration was evaluated through torsional testing and bone volume fraction (BV/TV). A second cohort, divided into two groups (control and 0.6 g), was followed for 24 days and evaluated for resonant frequency, bone-implant contact (BIC) and fluorochrome labeling. The EBM textured implants exhibited significantly improved mechanical stability independent of vibration, highlighting the benefits of using EBM to produce custom textured surfaces. Bone formation on and around the EBM textured implants increased compared to machined implants, as seen by BIC and fluorescence. No difference in torque, BIC or fluorescence among vibration levels was detected. BV/TV significantly increased at 0.6 g compared to control for both implant types.