2018 journal article

A pilot study on nutrients, antimicrobial proteins, and bacteria in commerce-free models for exchanging expressed human milk in the USA


By: M. Perrin n, A. Fogleman n, D. Davis n, C. Wimer n, K. Vogel n & A. Palmquistā€‰*

co-author countries: United States of America šŸ‡ŗšŸ‡ø
author keywords: human milk analysis; milk sharing; peer-to-peer milk sharing
MeSH headings : Anti-Infective Agents / analysis; Bacteria, Aerobic / isolation & purification; Breast Milk Expression; Enterobacteriaceae / isolation & purification; Fats / analysis; Female; Humans; Immunoglobulin A / analysis; Lactose / analysis; Milk Banks; Milk Proteins / analysis; Milk, Human / chemistry; Milk, Human / microbiology; Muramidase / analysis; Nutrients / analysis; Pilot Projects; Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification; Tissue Donors
Source: Web Of Science
Added: January 14, 2019

Abstract Expressed human milk can be donated or sold through a variety of channels, including human milk banks, corporations or individuals, or peerā€toā€peer milk sharing. There is a paucity of research regarding the nutrient and bioactive profiles of expressed human milk exchanged through commerceā€free scenarios, including peerā€toā€peer milk sharing. The study objective was to evaluate the macronutrient, antimicrobial protein, and bacteria composition in expressed human milk acquired via commerceā€free arrangements. Expressed human milk samples were collected from the following commerceā€free scenarios: milk expressed for a mother's or parent's own infant (MOM; N = 30); unpasteurized milk donated to a nonā€profit milk bank (BANKED; N = 30); milk expressed for peerā€toā€peer milk sharing (SHARED; N = 31); and health professionalā€facilitated milk sharing where donors are serologically screened and milk is dispensed raw (SCREENED; N = 30). Analyses were conducted for total protein, lactose, percent fat and water, lysozyme activity, immunoglobulin A (IgA) activity, total aerobic bacteria, coliform, and Staphylococcus aureus . No bacterial growth was observed in 52/121 samples, and 15/121 had growth greater than 5.0 log colonyā€forming units/mL. There was no evidence of differences by groups ( p > .05) in lactose, fat, water, lysozyme activity, sIgA activity, aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and S. aureus . Mean protein values (95% confidence interval) were 1.5 g/dL (1.4, 1.6) for BANKED, 1.4 g/dL (1.3, 1.5) for MOM, 1.6 g/dL (1.5, 1.7) for SCREENED, and 1.5 g/dL (1.4, 1.6) for SHARED, which was not significantly different ( p = .081). This research contributes to growing literature on the risks and benefits of uncompensated, peerā€toā€peer milk sharing.