Growth of GaN, InGaN, and AlGaN films and quantum well structures by molecular beam epitaxy
Johnson, M. A. L., Hughes, W. C., Rowland, W. H., Cook, J. W., Schetzina, J. F., Leonard, M., … Zavada, J. (1997, May). JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, Vol. 175, pp. 72–78.
GaN, AlGaN and InGaN films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using RF plasma sources for the generation of active nitrogen. These films have been deposited homoepitaxially onto GaNSiC substrates and heteroepitaxially onto LiGaO2 substrates. LiGaO2 is an ordered and closely-lattice-matched orthorhombic variant of the wurtzite crystal structure of GaN. A low-temperature AlN buffer layer is necessary in order to nucleate GaN on LiGaO2. Thick GaN and AlGaN layers may then be grown once deposition is initiated. InGaN has been grown by MBE at mole fractions of up to 20% as a quantum well between GaN cladding layers. The indium containing structures were deposited onto GaNSiC substrates to focus the development effort on the InGaN growth process rather than on heteroepitaxial nucleation. A modulated beam technique, with alternating short periods of (In, Ga)N and (Ga)N, was used to grow high-quality InGaN. The modulated beam limits the nucleation of metal droplets on the growth surface, which form due to thermodynamic limitations. A narrow PL dominated by band edge luminescence at 421 nm results from this growth technique. Growth of GaN at high temperatures is also reported.