2018 journal article
Revealing the Impact of F4-TCNQ as Additive on Morphology and Performance of High-Efficiency Nonfullerene Organic Solar Cells
Advanced Functional Materials, 29(1), 1806262.
Fluorinated molecule 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) and its derivatives have been used in polymer:fullerene solar cells primarily as a dopant to optimize the electrical properties and device performance. However, the underlying mechanism and generality of how F4-TCNQ affects device operation and possibly the morphology is poorly understood, particularly for emerging nonfullerene organic solar cells. In this work, the influence of F4-TCNQ on the blend film morphology and photovoltaic performance of nonfullerene solar cells processed by a single halogen-free solvent is systematically investigated using a set of morphological and electrical characterizations. In solar cells with a high-performance polymer:small molecule blend FTAZ:IT-M, F4-TCNQ has a negligibly small effect on the molecular packing and surface characteristics, while it clearly affects the electronic properties and mean-square composition variation of the bulk. In comparison to the control devices with an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.8%, inclusion of a trace amount of F4-TCNQ in the active layer has improved device fill factor and current density, which has resulted into a PCE of 12.4%. Further increase in F4-TCNQ content degrades device performance. This investigation aims at delineating the precise role of F4-TCNQ in nonfullerene bulk heterojunction films, and thereby establishing a facile approach to fabricate highly optimized nonfullerene solar cells.