2020 journal article
Early Warning of mmWave Signal Blockage and AoA Transition Using sub-6 GHz Observations
IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, 24(1), 207–211.
The susceptibility of millimeter-wave (mmWave) signals to physical blockage and abrupt signal strength variations presents a challenge to reliable 5G communication. This work proposes and examines the feasibility of utilizing lower-frequency signals as early-warning indicators of mobile mmWave signal blockage or recovery. A physics-based channel simulation tool incorporating Fresnel diffraction and image sources is employed to demonstrate that sub-6 GHz signals "lead" mmWave signals in reaching a specific signal-strength threshold by several to tens of milliseconds at mobile speeds, suggesting early-warning systems are viable. This predictive approach stems from frequency-dependent properties of diffraction and does not assume a specific topology or mobile and obstacle speeds. Realistic simulations that include transitions from line of sight (LoS) to non-line of sight (NLoS) and reflection scenarios are employed to verify the proposed prediction capabilities. Moreover, prediction of the strongest multipath component and its angle of arrival (AoA) using sub-6 GHz observations is investigated.