2020 journal article
Neuronal networks that regulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone secretion during undernutrition: evidence from sheep
Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 3, 106469.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the final common conduit from the central nervous system in the reproductive axis, controlling luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from the gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary. Although it is generally accepted that undernutrition inhibits GnRH/LH secretion, the central mechanisms that underlie the link between energy balance and reproduction remain to be fully elucidated. Sheep have been a longstanding and invaluable animal model for examination of the nutritional regulation of GnRH/LH secretion, given their ability to serve a biomedical and agricultural purpose. In this review, we summarize work that has used the ovine model to examine the central mechanisms whereby undernutrition regulates GnRH/LH secretion. Specifically, we focus our attention to the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and on neurons that express kisspeptin, neurokinin B, dynorphin, proopiomelanocortin, and neuropeptide y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP). We examine their roles in mediating the effects of leptin and insulin and their effects on LH during undernutrition, as well as their regulation under conditions of undernutrition. This review will also highlight the interactions between the aforementioned neuronal networks themselves, which may be important for our understanding of the roles each play in relaying information regarding energy status during times of undernutrition to ultimately regulate GnRH/LH secretion.