2020 journal article

Clinical presentation, cardiovascular findings, etiology, and outcome of myocarditis in dogs: 64 cases with presumptive antemortem diagnosis (26 confirmed postmortem) and 137 cases with postmortem diagnosis only (2004-2017)


By: S. Lakhdhir*, A. Viall*, E. Alloway n, B. Keene n, K. Baumgartner* & J. Ward*

author keywords: Troponin; Endocarditis; Duke criteria; Trypanosoma; Leishmania
MeSH headings : Animals; Autopsy / veterinary; Dog Diseases / blood; Dog Diseases / diagnostic imaging; Dog Diseases / microbiology; Dog Diseases / mortality; Dogs; Electrocardiography / veterinary; Female; Iowa; Male; Myocarditis / diagnostic imaging; Myocarditis / veterinary; North Carolina; Records / veterinary; Retrospective Studies; Troponin I / blood
TL;DR: Bacterial infection was the most common confirmed etiology of myocarditis in this study, and presence of pericardial effusion or azotemia were significant predictors of nonsurvival. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
3. Good Health and Well-being (Web of Science; OpenAlex)
Source: Web Of Science
Added: September 21, 2020

This study describes presentation, cardiovascular abnormalities, etiology, and outcome of canine myocarditis in geographic areas not endemic for Trypanosoma or Leishmania.Sixty-four (presumed antemortem diagnosis) and 137 (postmortem diagnosis only) client-owned dogs at two tertiary care facilities were included.Medical records of dogs with clinical or histopathological diagnosis of myocarditis were reviewed retrospectively.Common examination findings in dogs with a presumed antemortem diagnosis included fever (21%) and heart murmur (19%). Median cardiac troponin I was 12.2 ng/mL (range: 0.2-808.0 ng/mL), and troponin exceeded 1.0 ng/mL in 26 of 29 (90%) dogs. Ventricular ectopy was the most common arrhythmia (54%), whereas decreased left ventricular systolic function was the most common echocardiographic abnormality (56%). An infectious etiology was diagnosed in 35 of 64 (55%) dogs. Confirmed infectious etiologies included bacterial sepsis (n = 9) or extension of endocarditis (3), toxoplasmosis or neosporosis (3), parvovirus (2), and one case each of bartonellosis, trypanosomiasis, leptospirosis, and dirofilariasis. Median survival time was 4 days (range: 0-828 days) for all dogs vs. 82 days for dogs who survived at least 2 weeks after diagnosis. Presence of pericardial effusion or azotemia was a significant predictor of non-survival. The most common inflammatory infiltrate on histopathology was neutrophilic (47%), and 20 of 137 (14.5%) dogs had concurrent bacterial endocarditis on postmortem.Bacterial infection was the most common confirmed etiology of myocarditis in this study. Prognosis for canine myocarditis is guarded and similar to that reported for infective endocarditis. Criteria for the antemortem diagnosis of canine myocarditis are suggested.