2020 journal article
Analysis of Self-Organized Patterned Surface Oxide Spots on Ejected Spatter Produced during Laser Powder Bed Fusion
Additive Manufacturing, 35.
Spatter particles ejected from the melt pool after melting of 316 L stainless steel by laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing (LPBF), were found to contain morphologies not observed in as-atomized 316 L powder. This spatter consisted of large, spherical particles, highly dendritic surfaces, particles with caps of accreted liquid, and agglomerations of multiple individual particles fixed together by liquid ligaments prior to solidification. The focus of this study is on an additional, unique spatter morphology consisting of larger, spherical particles with surface oxide spots exhibiting a wide distribution of surface configurations, including organized patterning. Spatter particles with organized surface oxide patterns were characterized for surface and internal particle features using multiple imaging techniques. The following observations are made: 1) spots resided at the spatter particle surface and did not significantly penetrate the interior, 2) the spot(s) were amorphous and rich in Silicon (Si)-Manganese (Mn)-Oxygen (O), 3) a two-part Chromium (Cr)-O rich layer exists between the particle and spot, 4) Cr-O rich morphological features were present at the top surface of the spots, 5) the spatter particle composition was consistent with 316 L but appeared to decrease in Si content into the spatter particle away from a spot, and 6) small Si-rich spherical particles existed within the spatter particle interior.