2021 journal article
Semi-Abelian gauge theories, non-invertible symmetries, and string tensions beyond N-ality
JOURNAL OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS, (3).
A bstract We study a 3d lattice gauge theory with gauge group U(1) N− 1 ⋊ S N , which is obtained by gauging the S N global symmetry of a pure U(1) N− 1 gauge theory, and we call it the semi-Abelian gauge theory. We compute mass gaps and string tensions for both theories using the monopole-gas description. We find that the effective potential receives equal contributions at leading order from monopoles associated with the entire SU( N ) root system. Even though the center symmetry of the semi-Abelian gauge theory is given by ℤ N , we observe that the string tensions do not obey the N -ality rule and carry more detailed information on the representations of the gauge group. We find that this refinement is due to the presence of non-invertible topological lines as a remnant of U(1) N− 1 one-form symmetry in the original Abelian lattice theory. Upon adding charged particles corresponding to W -bosons, such non-invertible symmetries are explicitly broken so that the N -ality rule should emerge in the deep infrared regime.