2021 journal article
Long-term cometabolic transformation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,4-dioxane by Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 21198 grown on alcohols slowly produced by orthosilicates
JOURNAL OF CONTAMINANT HYDROLOGY, 240.
Long-term cometabolic transformation of 1,1,1-trichlorethane (1,1,1-TCA) and 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) was achieved using slow release compounds (SRCs) as growth substrates for pure cultures of Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 21198 (ATCC strain 21198). Resting cell transformation tests showed 1,4-D transformation occurred without a lag phase for cells grown on 2-butanol, while an induction period of several hours was required for 1-butanol grown cells. These observations were consistent with activity-based labeling patterns for monooxygenase hydroxylase components and specific rates of tetrahydrofuran (THF) degradation. 1,1,1-TCA and 1,4-D degradation rates for alcohol-grown cells were slower than those for cells grown on gaseous alkanes such as isobutane . Batch metabolism and degradation tests were performed, in the presence of 1,1,1-TCA and 1,4-D, with the growth of ATCC strain 21198 on alcohols produced by the hydrolysis of orthosilicates . Three orthosilicates were tested: tetrabutylorthosilicate (TBOS), tetra- s -butylorthosilicate (T2BOS), and tetraisopropoxysilane (T2POS). The measured rates of alcohol release in poisoned controls depended on the orthosilicate structure with TBOS, which produced a 1° alcohol (1-butanol), hydrolyzing more rapidly than T2POS and T2BOS, that produced the 2° alcohols 2-butanol and 2-propanol, respectively. The orthosilicates were added as light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) with ATCC strain 21198 and formed dispersed droplets when continuously mixed. Continuous rates of oxygen (O 2 ) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production confirmed alcohol metabolism by ATCC strain 21198 was occurring. The rates of metabolism (TBOS > T2POS > T2BOS) were consistent with the rates of alcohol release via abiotic hydrolysis. 1,4-D and 1,1,1-TCA were continuously transformed in successive additions by ATCC strain 21198 over 125 days, with the rates highly correlated with the rates of metabolism. The metabolism of the alcohols was not inhibited by acetylene , while transformation of 1,4-D and 1,1,1-TCA was inhibited by this gas. As acetylene is a potent inactivator of diverse bacterial monooxygenases, these results suggest that monooxygenase activity was required for the observed cometabolic transformations but not for alcohol utilization. Alcohol concentrations in the biologically active reactors were maintained below the levels of detection, indicating they were metabolized rapidly after being produced. Much lower rates of O 2 consumption were observed in the reactors containing T2BOS, which has benefits for in-situ bioremediation. The results illustrate the importance of the structure of the SRC when developing passive aerobic cometabolic treatment systems. • Alcohol-releasing orthosilicates promote the aerobic cometabolism of 1,1,1-TCA and 1,4-D. • Secondary alcohols, such as 2-butanol induce SCAM in ATCC strain 21,198 during growth. • Rates of metabolism and cometabolism are correlated with hydrolysis rates of the orthosilicates. • Permeable reactive cometablic treatment barriers might be achieved using orthosilcates.