2021 article

Three-dimensional bladder ultrasound to measure daily urinary bladder volume in hospitalized dogs

Vasquez, E. J., Kendall, A., Musulin, S., & Vaden, S. L. (2021, July 31). JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE.

By: E. Vasquez n, A. Kendall n, S. Musulin n‚ÄČ & S. Vaden n

author keywords: bladder volume; dogs; ultrasound; urine; urine residual volume
MeSH headings : Animals; Dog Diseases / diagnostic imaging; Dogs; Prospective Studies; Ultrasonography / veterinary; Urinary Bladder / diagnostic imaging; Urinary Catheterization / veterinary; Urinary Retention / diagnostic imaging; Urinary Retention / veterinary
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 16, 2021

Background Urinary bladder volume (UBV) and urine residual volume (URV) provide important information for hospitalized dogs and might allow recognition of urine retention. Objective Using 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound to monitor daily URV is a safe and effective way to recognize urinary retention. Animals Twenty-five client-owned hospitalized dogs. Methods Prospective, observational study. UBV and URV were measured using 3D ultrasound daily at approximately the same time. UBV was measured, the dog was taken for a 5-minute controlled leash walk, then URV was estimated. Concurrent use of opioids, anesthetics, and fluids administered IV were recorded. Results Daily URVs were >0.4 mL/kg in 22 of 25 dogs on at least 1 day of hospitalization. Seventeen of 25 dogs had an abnormal URV at the time of discharge. Of 18 dogs that were anesthetized while hospitalized, 16 had a URV >0.4 mL/kg with a mean of 4.34 mL/kg (range, 0.5-13.4 mL/kg). No statistical difference in degree of URV was found based on the use of anesthesia, administration of fluids IV, or opioids. Weight was significantly associated with URV; dogs <10 kg had a higher URV per unit mass than dogs >10 kg (P = .001). Conclusions and Clinical Importance Use of a 3D ultrasound device to measure daily UBV and URV in hospitalized dogs provides a safe estimate of bladder volume in real-time. Monitoring daily URV might help in early identification of patients that are retaining urine, thereby preventing potential adverse effects of urethral catheterization or prolonged urinary retention.