2014 journal article
Three-Dimensional Position and Orientation Measurements Using Magneto-Quasistatic Fields and Complex Image Theory
IEEE ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION MAGAZINE, 56(1), 160–173.
Traditional wireless position-location systems, operating using propagating waves, suffer reduced performance in non-line-of-sight (NLoS) applications. Traditional systems that use quasistatic fields have instead been limited to short ranges, progressive direction-finding applications, require RF fingerprinting, or do not provide complete immunity to dielectric obstacles (use of electric fields). These limitations impose severe restrictions in applications such as tracking an American football during game play, where position and orientation tracking may be required over long ranges, and when the line-of-sight (LoS) is blocked by groups of people. A technique using magneto-quasistatic fields and complex image theory was recently shown to circumvent these problems, and to enable accurate long-range one-dimensional and two-dimensional measurements. In this work, we present three-dimensional position and orientation measurements using the magneto-quasistatic system and complex image theory over an area of 27.43 m × 27.43 m. Inverting the theoretical expression for the voltage measured at the terminals of the receiving loops to determine three-dimensional position and orientation resulted in mean and median geometric position errors of 0.77 m and 0.71 m, respectively; inclination orientation mean and median errors of 9.67° and 8.24°, respectively; and azimuthal orientation mean and median errors of 2.84° and 2.25°, respectively.