2021 article

A postreplicative C5-cytosine hypermodification triggered by bacteriophage methyltransferase and hydroxylase

Chen, T.-Y., & Chang, W.-chen. (2021, July 13). PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Vol. 118.

By: T. Chen n & W. Chang n

co-author countries: United States of America 🇺🇸
MeSH headings : Bacteriophages / enzymology; Cytosine / metabolism; DNA Replication; Glycosylation; Glycosyltransferases / metabolism; Methyltransferases / metabolism; Mixed Function Oxygenases / metabolism; Substrate Specificity; Viral Proteins / metabolism
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 23, 2021

Viruses of bacteria, also known as bacteriophages, harbor the greatest diversity of DNA modifications identified to date. To fight against restriction endonucleases of their hosts, bacteriophages modify their genomic DNA through introduction of various moieties including amino acids, polyamines, and sugars (1, 2). A series of transformations are involved in DNA base modification. Followed by formation of hydroxymethyl pyrimidine nucleotides, which are utilized by DNA polymerase, replication and postreplicative modifications furnish installation of these moieties onto the DNA polymer (3⇓⇓⇓–7). Burke et al. (8) show that bacteriophages resort to C5-cytosine methyltransferase (C5-MT) and 5-methylcytosine dioxygenase ten-eleven translocation enzyme (TET) as an alternative mechanism to postreplicatively form hydroxymethylcytosine on DNA. The bacteriophage TET enables site-specific hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), installed by C5-MT, to produce 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Through bioinformatic screening, the authors identify and characterize tailoring enzymes, such as glycosyltransferases, that collaborate with phage C5-MT and TET to … [↵][1]1To whom correspondence may be addressed. Email: wchang6{at}ncsu.edu. [1]: #xref-corresp-1-1