2017 journal article
Battle of Water Networks DMAs: Multistage Design Approach
JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT, 143(10).
Looped water distribution system (WDS) repartitioning to district metering areas (DMAs) gained popularity as an effective technique to manage the system and detect and reduce system leakages. However, to apply this method to real WDS, various system properties should be taken into account to ensure efficient water supply. The battle of water networks district meter areas (BWNDMA) is a challenging problem that requires the redesign of the E-Town city network in Colombia. The water utility is looking to repartition the network into manageable DMAs while supplying future demands, keeping minimum and maximum pressures, improving water quality, operating the network at uniform low pressures, balancing water sources, and meeting their seasonal production capabilities. The problem is stated as a multiobjective optimization problem with DMA partitioning being one of eight equal-weighted objectives. They may be reached by (1) closing, opening, or replacing existing pipes, (2) adding parallel pipes, (3) managing storage tanks, pressure valves, and flow-control valves, and (4) utilizing pumps in the dry season. With no known analytical methodology to optimize such a large mixed-integer nonlinear problem, a major difficulty is to find a feasible solution; therefore, a multistage classic engineering approach was taken. First, source allocation and general design were carried out for the operational zones. Then, tank volumes were adjusted to meet their constraints. At this stage, DMAs were introduced to meet pressure regulations. Finally, detailed design and fine-tuning of the operations were carried out. This paper describes the taken procedures and obtained results for the redesign of the E-Town network.