2021 journal article
Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Growth and Seed Production When in Competition with Peanut and Other Crops in North Carolina
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) is a highly competitive weed that can be difficult to manage in many cropping systems. Research to date has not quantified the growth and development of A. palmeri in a manner that allows direct comparisons across cropping systems. Research was conducted to compare the growth, development, and seed production of A. palmeri when competing with corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] when emerging with crops or emerging three weeks after crops emerge. Regardless of when A. palmeri emerged, seed production was greatest and similar in cotton and peanut and exceeded that of corn and soybean; seed production in soybean exceeded that of corn. However, seed production was approximately 10-fold greater when A. palmeri emerged with crops compared with emergence three weeks later. These results illustrate the importance of controlling weeds during the first three weeks of the season relative to contributions of A. palmeri to the weed seed bank and is the first report comparing seed production in presence of these crops in a manner allowing a statistical comparison of seed production and highlighting the importance of crop sequence for seed bank management.