2021 journal article
Comparison of the Intestinal Pharmacokinetics of Two Different Florfenicol Dosing Regimens and Its Impact on the Prevalence and Phenotypic Resistance of E. coli and Enterococcus over Time
In order to mitigate the food animal sector’s role in the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the World Health Organization (WHO) suggests the use of lower tier antimicrobials, such as florfenicol. Florfenicol has two dosing schemes used to treat primarily bovine respiratory disease. In this study, the objective was to characterize the plasma and gastrointestinal pharmacokinetics of each dosing regimen and assess the effect of these dosing regimens on the prevalence of resistant indicator bacteria over time. Twelve steers underwent abdominal surgery to facilitate the placement of ultrafiltration probes within the lumen of the ileum and colon, as well as placement of an interstitial probe. Following surgery, cattle were dosed with either 20 mg/kg IM every 48 h of florfenicol given twice (n = 6) or a single, subcutaneous dose (40 mg/kg, n = 6). Plasma, interstitial fluid, gastrointestinal ultrafiltrate, and feces were collected. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated high penetration of florfenicol within the gastrointestinal tract for both the high and low dose group (300%, 97%, respectively). There was no significant difference noted between dosing groups in proportion or persistence of phenotypically resistant bacterial isolates; however, the percent of resistant isolates was high throughout the study period. The recommendation for the use of a lower tier antimicrobial, such as florfenicol, may allow for the persistence of co-resistance for antibiotics of high regulatory concern.