2021 journal article

75-86-GHz Signal Generation Using a Phase-Controlled Quadrature-Push Quadrupler Driven by a QVCO or a Tunable Polyphase Filter


By: Y. Yeh, W. Wang & B. Floyd

author keywords: Frequency multiplier; harmonic rejection; millimeter-wave (mmWave); phase noise; power efficiency; quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO); quadrupler; SiGe BiCMOS; W-band
Source: Web Of Science
Added: October 18, 2021

This article demonstrates a <inline-formula xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$W$ </tex-math></inline-formula> -band local-oscillator generation technique in 120-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology with high output power and high efficiency. The circuit employs a frequency quadrupler that is driven with differential quadrature inputs that are provided by either a quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO) or a tunable active polyphase filter (PPF) circuit. The quadrupler employs a phase-controlled quadrature-push (PCQP) topology using stacked devices with a lower class-C common-emitter (CE) amplifier generating a current that is then modulated by an upper common-base (CB) amplifier driven out-of-phase with the lower devices. Such a structure generates a strong fourth-order harmonic. Four such stacks driven at their input using accurate differential quadrature signals increase the fourth-harmonic output power while suppressing other harmonics. The differential quadrature signals for the quadrupler are provided using either a PPF circuit or a capacitive injection-locking QVCO, which achieves wide tuning range and low phase noise. Both approaches are evaluated through the measurement of separate test circuits. The LO circuit using the QVCO provides 8–11.5-dBm output power over 75.2–83 GHz, power efficiency of 2.2–4.1%, including QVCO and buffer power, >20-dB harmonic rejection in the lower frequency range, and >14.4-dB harmonic rejection in the upper frequency range. The LO circuit using the active PPF provides 8.4–11.2-dBm output power over 75.6–82.8 GHz, power efficiency of 2.4–4.8%, including PPF and buffer power, and >23-dB harmonic rejection.