2021 journal article
Structure, dynamics, and regulation of TRF1-TIN2-mediated trans- and cis-interactions on telomeric DNA
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, 297(3).
TIN2 is a core component of the shelterin complex linking double-stranded telomeric DNA-binding proteins (TRF1 and TRF2) and single-strand overhang-binding proteins (TPP1-POT1). In vivo, the large majority of TRF1 and TRF2 exist in complexes containing TIN2 but lacking TPP1/POT1; however, the role of TRF1-TIN2 interactions in mediating interactions with telomeric DNA is unclear. Here, we investigated DNA molecular structures promoted by TRF1-TIN2 interaction using atomic force microscopy (AFM), total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), and the DNA tightrope assay. We demonstrate that the short (TIN2S) and long (TIN2L) isoforms of TIN2 facilitate TRF1-mediated DNA compaction (cis-interactions) and DNA-DNA bridging (trans-interactions) in a telomeric sequence- and length-dependent manner. On the short telomeric DNA substrate (six TTAGGG repeats), the majority of TRF1-mediated telomeric DNA-DNA bridging events are transient with a lifetime of ~1.95 s. On longer DNA substrates (270 TTAGGG repeats), TIN2 forms multiprotein complexes with TRF1 and stabilizes TRF1-mediated DNA-DNA bridging events that last on the order of minutes. Preincubation of TRF1 with its regulator protein Tankyrase 1 and the cofactor NAD+ significantly reduced TRF1-TIN2 mediated DNA-DNA bridging, whereas TIN2 protected the disassembly of TRF1-TIN2 mediated DNA-DNA bridging upon Tankyrase 1 addition. Furthermore, we showed that TPP1 inhibits TRF1-TIN2L-mediated DNA-DNA bridging. Our study, together with previous findings, supports a molecular model in which protein assemblies at telomeres are heterogeneous with distinct subcomplexes and full shelterin complexes playing distinct roles in telomere protection and elongation.