Secretory Sorcery: Paneth Cell Control of Intestinal Repair and Homeostasis
[Review of ]. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, 12(4), 1239–1250.
Paneth cells are professional secretory cells that classically play a role in the innate immune system by secreting antimicrobial factors into the lumen to control enteric bacteria. In this role, Paneth cells are able to sense cues from luminal bacteria and respond by changing production of these factors to protect the epithelial barrier. Paneth cells rely on autophagy to regulate their secretory capability and capacity. Disruption of this pathway through mutation of genes, such as Atg16L1, results in decreased Paneth cell function, dysregulated enteric microbiota, decreased barrier integrity, and increased risk of diseases such as Crohn's disease in humans. Upon differentiation Paneth cells migrate downward and intercalate among active intestinal stem cells at the base of small intestinal crypts. This localization puts them in a unique position to interact with active intestinal stem cells, and recent work shows that Paneth cells play a critical role in influencing the intestinal stem cell niche. This review discusses the numerous ways Paneth cells can influence intestinal stem cells and their niche. We also highlight the ways in which Paneth cells can alter cells and other organ systems.