2021 journal article
An eco-friendly approach for blending of fast-pyrolysis bio-oil in petroleum-derived fuel by controlling ash content of loblolly pine
RENEWABLE ENERGY, 179, 2063–2070.
This paper describes the effect of the ash content in biomass on the distribution of pyrolysis products and the miscibility of bio-oil in diesel. Ash content of loblolly pine wood (0.5 wt %, 1.1 wt %, and 1.5 wt %) was systematically varied by impregnating the wood with potassium carbonate solution. Variation in the ash content did not create a significant change in the chemical composition of the impregnated biomass. However, the response to a variety of thermal treatments changed significantly. The volatile matter content decreased from 88.3% to 78.2%, while the bio-oil yield declined from 45.7% to 29.9% as the ash content increased. Although the total organic yield decreased with increased biomass ash content, the total concentration of phenolic monomers increased from 2.8 mg/g to 20.2 mg/g, and bio-oil miscibility with a commercial diesel fuel increased from 6.7% to 13.4% based on wet bio-oil. The miscibility of guaiacol and 4-methyl guaiacol in diesel was higher than that of catechol, due to the lower polar and hydrogen bonding contribution. Test in a diesel engine showed a simultaneous reduction of HC and NOx emissions using diesel extracts.