2022 journal article

A Unified Power-Setpoint Tracking Algorithm for Utility-Scale PV Systems With Power Reserves and Fast Frequency Response Capabilities

IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 13(1), 479–490.

author keywords: Voltage measurement; Temperature measurement; Steady-state; Mathematical models; Frequency response; Current measurement; Real-time systems; Inverter control; fast frequency response; FPPT; MPPE; power curtailment; power regulation; power reserves; PV system
Source: ORCID
Added: December 21, 2021

This paper presents a fast power-setpoint tracking algorithm to enable utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems to provide high quality grid services such as power reserves and fast frequency response. The algorithm unites maximum power-point estimation (MPPE) with flexible power-point tracking (FPPT) control to improve the performance of both algorithms, achieving fast and accurate PV power-setpoint tracking even under rapid solar irradiance changes. The MPPE is developed using a real-time, nonlinear curve-fitting approach based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. A modified adaptive FPPT based on the Perturb and Observe technique is developed for the power-setpoint tracking. By using MPPE to decouple the impact of irradiance changes on the measured PV output power, we develop a fast convergence technique for tracking power-reference changes within three FPPT iterations. Furthermore, to limit the maximum output power ripple, a new design is introduced for the steady-state voltage step size of the adaptive FPPT. The proposed algorithm is implemented on a testbed consisting of a 500 kVA three-phase, single-stage, utility-scale PV system on the OPAL-RT eMEGASIM platform. Results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art.