2022 journal article
Gene Ontology Groups and Signaling Pathways Regulating the Process of Avian Satellite Cell Differentiation
Modern science is becoming increasingly committed to environmentally friendly solutions, mitigating the impact of the developing human civilisation on the environment. One of the leading fields aimed at sustainable agriculture is in vitro meat production. Cellular agriculture aims to provide a source of animal-free meat products, which would decrease worldwide nutritional dependency on animal husbandry, thereby reducing the significant impact of this industry on Earth's climate. However, while some studies successfully produced lab-based meat on a small scale, scalability of this approach requires significant optimisation of the methodology in order to ensure its viability on an industrial scale. One of the methodological promises of in vitro meat production is the application of cell suspension-based bioreactors. Hence, this study focused on a complex transcriptomic comparison of adherent undifferentiated, differentiated and suspension-cultured myosatellite cells, aiming to determine the effects of different culture methods on their transcriptome. Modern next-generation sequencing (RNAseq) was used to determine the levels of transcripts in the cultures' cell samples. Then, differential expression and pathway analyses were performed using bionformatical methods. The significantly regulated pathways included: EIF2, mTOR, GP6, integrin and HIFα signalling. Differential regulation of gene expression, as well as significant enrichment and modulation of pathway activity, suggest that suspension culture potentially promotes the ex vivo-associated loss of physiological characteristics and gain of plasticity. Therefore, it seems that suspension cultures, often considered the desired method for in vitro meat production, require further investigation to fully elucidate their effect on myosatellite cells and, therefore, possibly enable their easier scalability to ensure suitability for industrial application.