2023 journal article

Task-Oriented and Imitation-Oriented Movements in Virtual Reality Exercise Performance and Design

Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

By: K. Chen n & K. Chen‚ÄČ

author keywords: virtual environment; practice and motivation; electromyography (EMG); motion tracking
Source: ORCID
Added: February 28, 2022

This study investigated the influence of game features and practice type on human kinematic and muscular performance in a virtual reality exercise (VRE). Participants demonstrated changes in shoulder flexion angle and muscle activation under different virtual scenarios.Conventional VRE studies often compared the outcomes between an experimental group that underwent exercise in VR and a real-world exercise control group, whereas comparisons between VRE programs are lacking. Besides, the attributes of VREs received little attention.Thirteen able-bodied participants performed upper extremity exercise movements in immersive VR using a head-mounted display. Participants performed task-oriented and imitation-oriented movements with different game features. Shoulder muscle activity (the deltoid, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus) and shoulder motion were collected.Practice type (task-oriented, imitation-oriented) significantly influenced the flexion angle of the shoulder complex (F(1,11) = 9.53, p = .01), and the muscle activity of the supraspinatus (F(1,9) = 12.61, p = .006) and the infraspinatus (F(1,9) = 12.71, p = .006). Game features did not have a statistically significant effect on shoulder flexion angle or shoulder muscles' activations.Compared to imitation-oriented practice, task-oriented practice elicited more intensive shoulder movements and muscular efforts but also induced greater movement variations. Substantial differences across game features levels should be further investigated to have significant effects.This research may help guide the design of future VREs. For strength training or rehabilitation where intensive practice is required, task-oriented practice should be considered; for movement learning where movement consistency is required, imitation oriented practice should be adopted.