2021 journal article
Dietary Macronutrient Composition Differentially Modulates the Remodeling of Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism during NAFLD
Diets rich in fats and carbohydrates aggravate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), of which mitochondrial dysfunction is a central feature. It is not clear whether a high-carbohydrate driven ‘lipogenic’ diet differentially affects mitochondrial oxidative remodeling compared to a high-fat driven ‘oxidative’ environment. We hypothesized that the high-fat driven ‘oxidative’ environment will chronically sustain mitochondrial oxidative function, hastening metabolic dysfunction during NAFLD. Mice (C57BL/6NJ) were reared on a low-fat (LF; 10% fat calories), high-fat (HF; 60% fat calories), or high-fructose/high-fat (HFr/HF; 25% fat and 34.9% fructose calories) diet for 10 weeks. De novo lipogenesis was determined by measuring the incorporation of deuterium from D2O into newly synthesized liver lipids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Hepatic mitochondrial metabolism was profiled under fed and fasted states by the incubation of isolated mitochondria with [13C3]pyruvate, targeted metabolomics of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, estimates of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and hepatic gene and protein expression. De novo lipogenesis was higher in the HFr/HF mice compared to their HF counterparts. Contrary to our expectations, hepatic oxidative function after fasting was induced in the HFr/HF group. This differential induction of mitochondrial oxidative function by the high fructose-driven ‘lipogenic’ environment could influence the progressive severity of hepatic insulin resistance.