2022 journal article
Effects of Sulfamethazine and Cupric Ion on Treatment of Anaerobically Digested Swine Wastewater with Growing Duckweed
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, 19(4).
Duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) has the potential to treat anaerobically digested swine wastewater (ADSW), but the effects of antibiotics and heavy metals in ADSW on the treatment performance and mechanism of Spirodela polyrrhiza are not clear. Herein, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sulfamethazine (SMZ) and cupric ion on NH4+-N and total phosphorus (TP) removal from synthetic ADSW. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of photosynthetic pigments, vitamin E, and proteins in duckweed were also evaluated. Under the stress of SMZ, duckweed showed excellent removal efficiency of nutrients, and the results of SOD activity and photosynthetic pigments content indicated that duckweed had good tolerance to SMZ. Interestingly, a combined application of SMZ and cupric ion would inhibit the nutrient removal by duckweed, but significantly increased the contents of photosynthetic pigments, proteins, and vitamin E. In addition, the consequence indicated that high value-added protein and vitamin E products could be produced and harvested by cultivating duckweed in ADSW. Furthermore, possible degradation pathways of SMZ in the duckweed system were proposed based on the analysis with LC-MS/MS. This research proposed a novel view for using duckweed system to remove nutrients from ADSW and produce value-added products under the stress of SMZ and cupric ion.