2022 journal article
Circadian effects on UV-induced damage and mutations
MUTATION RESEARCH-REVIEWS IN MUTATION RESEARCH, 789.
Skin cancer is the most diagnosed type of cancer in the United States, and while most of these malignancies are highly treatable, treatment costs still exceed $8 billion annually. Over the last 50 years, the annual incidence of skin cancer has steadily grown; therefore, understanding the environmental factors driving these types of cancer is a prominent research-focus. A causality between ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and skin cancer is well-established, but exposure to UVR alone is not necessarily sufficient to induce carcinogenesis. The emerging field of circadian biology intersects strongly with the physiological systems of the mammalian body and introduces a unique opportunity for analyzing mechanisms of homeostatic disruption. The circadian clock refers to the approximate 24-hour cycle, in which protein levels of specific clock-controlled genes (CCGs) fluctuate based on the time of day. Though these CCGs are tissue specific, the skin has been observed to have a robust circadian clock that plays a role in its response to UVR exposure. This in-depth review will detail the mechanisms of the circadian clock and its role in cellular homeostasis. Next, the skin's response to UVR exposure and its induction of DNA damage and mutations will be covered - with an additional focus placed on how the circadian clock influences this response through nucleotide excision repair. Lastly, this review will discuss current models for studying UVR-induced skin lesions and perturbations of the circadian clock, as well as the impact of these factors on human health.