2022 journal article
Convolution-based frequency domain multiplexing of SiPM readouts using the DRS4 digitizer
NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT, 1025.
We present 4:1 multiplexing of organic scintillators, each coupled to a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), to reduce the need for a large number of digitizer input channels to readout highly pixelated radiation detection systems. Frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) encodes a detector pulse by assigning it a unique frequency via convolution before combining the encoded signal into a single channel. The combined signal is then read through a digitizer input channel. We have designed an FDM system to multiplex four SiPMs using DRS4 digitizer evaluation board from Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). We demonstrate 4:1 multiplexing of the SiPM fast output signals and pulse recovery from the digitized multiplexed signal using deconvolution. The noise in the recovered pulse introduces a bias and uncertainty in the estimate of energy and timing that changes with pulse height. The relative uncertainty in the estimated energy from the recovered pulse decreases with pulse height with a maximum uncertainty of 3.1% for the low energy pulses (corresponding to 100 keV); the uncertainty in the estimated time pick-off also decreases with pulse height with a maximum uncertainty of 110 ps for the low energy pulses.