2022 journal article

Non-target and suspect-screening analyses of hydroponic soybeans and passive samplers exposed to different watershed irrigation sources


By: S. Brecht n, X. Kong n, D. Shea n, X. Xia n & E. Nichols n

author keywords: HRMS; Soybeans; Passive samplers; Wastewater; Hydroponics
MeSH headings : Agricultural Irrigation / methods; Hydroponics; Soybeans; Wastewater / analysis; Water / analysis; Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis
Source: Web Of Science
Added: May 16, 2022

Water scarcity increases the likelihood of irrigating food crops with municipal wastewater that may pose potential dietary risks of regulated and non-regulated organic chemical uptake to edible plant tissues. Only a few studies have used high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to assess the uptake of chemicals of concern into food crops. This study used non-target and suspect-screening analyses to compare total chemical features, tentatively identified chemicals (TICs), and EPA ToxCast chemicals in soybean plants and passive samplers exposed to five different irrigation sources that were collected from an agricultural watershed during mild drought conditions. Secondary-treated municipal wastewater effluent, two surface waters, two ground waters, and deionized municipal tap water were used for two hydroponic experiments: soybean roots and shoots and Composite Integrative Passive Samplers (CIPS) harvested after fourteen days of exposure and soybeans after fifty-six days. CIPS were sealed in separate glass amber jars to evaluate their efficacy to mimic chemical features, TICs, and ToxCast chemical uptake in plant roots, shoots, and beans. Total soybean biomass and water use were greatest for tap water, municipal wastewater, and surface water downstream of the municipal wastewater facility relative to groundwater samples and surface water collected upstream of the wastewater facility. ToxCast chemicals were ubiquitous across watershed irrigation sources in abundance, chemical use category, and number. Wastewater-exposed soybeans had the fewest extractable TICs in plant tissues of all irrigation sources. More ToxCast chemicals were identified in CIPS than extracted from irrigation sources by solid phase extraction. ToxCast chemicals in beans and CIPS were similar in number, chemical use category, and log Kow range. CIPS appear to serve as a useful surrogate for ToxCast chemical uptake in beans, the edible food product.