2016 journal article
TAK1 Regulates the Nrf2 Antioxidant System Through Modulating p62/SQSTM1
ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING, 25(17), 953–964.
Nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the master transcriptional regulator of antioxidant gene expression. On increased oxidative stress, an adaptor for Nrf2 degradation, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), is directly modulated by oxidants in the cytoplasm, which results in stabilization and activation of Nrf2. Nrf2 is also constitutively active, to some extent, in the absence of exogenous oxidative stress. We have previously demonstrated that intestinal epithelium-specific TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) deletion downregulates the level of Nrf2 protein, resulting in an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a mouse model. We aim at determining the mechanism by which TAK1 modulates the level of Nrf2.We found that TAK1 upregulated serine 351 phosphorylation of an autophagic adaptor protein, p62/Sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1), which facilitates interaction between p62/SQSTM1 and Keap1 and subsequent Keap1 degradation. This, ultimately, causes increased Nrf2. Tak1 deficiency reduced the phosphorylation of p62/SQSTM1, resulting in decreased steady-state levels of Nrf2 along with increased Keap1. We also found that this regulation is independent of the canonical redox-mediated Nrf2 activation mechanism. In Tak1-deficient intestinal epithelium, a synthetic phenolic electrophile, butylated hydroxyanisole still effectively upregulated Nrf2 and reduced ROS.Our results identify for the first time that TAK1 is a modulator of p62/SQSTM1-dependent Keap1 degradation and maintains the steady state-level of Nrf2.TAK1 regulates Nrf2 through modulation of Keap-p62/SQSTM1 interaction. This regulation is important for homeostatic antioxidant protection in the intestinal epithelium. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 953-964.