2022 journal article
Observable Metabolites and Metabolomic Sampling Protocols for Managed African Savanna Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Whole Blood Using H-NMR Spectroscopy
We used nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR) to evaluate the metabolomics of heparinized whole blood drawn from six African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) maintained on a well characterized diet. Whole blood samples obtained under behavioral restraint, then quickly frozen in liquid nitrogen, were stored at -80 °C until analysis. Frozen samples were thawed under controlled conditions and extracted with methanol and chloroform to separate the polar and non-polar metabolites. We identified 18 polar metabolites and 14 non-polar lipids using one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectra. Despite unexpected rouleaux formation in the thawed frozen samples, spectra were consistent among animals and did not vary dramatically with age or the sex of the animal.