2022 journal article
Use of Crystal Violet to Improve Visual Cytopathic Effect- based Reading for Viral Titration using TCID50 Assays
JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS, (180).
Viral titration is a key assay for virology research. The detection of cytopathic effect (CPE) via TCID50 assays and plaque-forming units (PFU) assays are the two main methods to calculate the titer of a virus stock and are often based on microscopy detection or cell staining for visualization. In the case of TCID50 assay, objective visualization is commonly based on immunocytochemical (ICC) staining of intracellular virus to calculate titers combined with visual CPE detection via microscopy. However, ICC staining is costly and time consuming. In this study, we compared visual CPE observation via microscopy, ICC staining and crystal violet staining to determine the titers of two CPE-forming viruses, Influenza A virus (IAV) of swine origin and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV). We show that both crystal violet and ICC staining are more accurate than visual CPE detection, presenting nearly identical levels of precision on both IAV and PRRSV. For this reason, here we present crystal violet staining as a faster and more affordable way to determine viral titrations on a TCID50 assay for CPE-forming viruses titrated in cell lines.