2022 journal article
Perianesthetic mortality in English Bulldogs: a retrospective analysis in 2010-2017
BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH, 18(1).
Many veterinarians consider English Bulldogs to have a greater perianesthetic mortality risk. The aims of this study were to 1) determine total and anesthesia-related, perianesthetic mortality (PAM) rates in English Bulldogs (EB), 2) identify potential risk factors associated with mortality in EB, and 3) determine the difference in the perianesthetic mortality rates between EB, other-brachycephalic breeds (OB), and non-brachycephalic breeds (NB). Records from EB that were anesthetized between 2010 and 2017, were investigated. OB and NB were enrolled to match with each EB based on a procedure and age from the study period. Data collected in EB included: age, ASA status, weight, procedure types, anesthetic and analgesic management, anesthetic duration, anesthetic recovery location, and cause of death. Age and cause of death were determined from OB and NB. Fisher's exact test was used to compare PAM rate and age in EB, OB, and NB. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare EB survivor and EB non-survivor. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors and odds ratio (OR) associated with PAM in EB.Two hundred twenty nine EB, 218 OB, and 229 NB were identified. The total and anesthesia-related PAM rates in EB were 6.6 and 3.9%, respectively. EB had a greater total PAM rate compared with OB (p = 0.007). ASA status was different between survivors and non-survivors in EB (p < 0.01). Risk factors identified regardless of the cause of death were premedication with full μ opioids (OR = 0.333, p = 0.114), continuous infusion of ketamine post-operatively (OR = 13.775, p = 0.013), and acepromazine administration post-operatively (OR = 7.274, p = 0.004). The most common cause of death in EB was postoperative respiratory dysfunction (87.5%).Total and anesthesia-related mortality in EB is considerable. Most deaths in EB occurred during the postoperative period secondary to respiratory complications.