2017 journal article
Water Conservation Potential of Smart Irrigation Technologies in the Catawba-Wateree River Basin
JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING, 143(2).
AbstractA 3-year study was conducted in the Catawba-Wateree River Basin during the spring and summer months of 2009–2011 to evaluate the water savings potential of three smart irrigation controllers compared with standard timer-based irrigation controllers. Thirty-six residential sites, 12 on each of three Duke Energy lakes (Lake Norman, Lake Hickory, and Lake Wylie), were selected for the study. Each site had an automated, underground irrigation system that directly drew water from the Duke Energy lake that the property bordered. None of the systems had previously been metered and there was no charge to homeowners for withdrawing water from the bordering lake. All sites were instrumented with water meters in 2009 to monitor irrigation water withdrawals, and irrigation system audits were performed before installation of smart technologies. After collecting baseline water-use data in 2009, existing controllers were replaced with one of three smart controllers at 27 of the study sites in 2010, and irrigatio...