2022 journal article
Sparsifying the resolvent forcing mode via gradient-based optimisation
JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS, 944.
We consider the use of sparsity-promoting norms in obtaining localised forcing structures from resolvent analysis. By formulating the optimal forcing problem as a Riemannian optimisation, we are able to maximise cost functionals whilst maintaining a unit-energy forcing. Taking the cost functional to be the energy norm of the driven response results in a traditional resolvent analysis and is solvable by a singular value decomposition (SVD). By modifying this cost functional with the $L_1$ -norm, we target spatially localised structures that provide an efficient amplification in the energy of the response. We showcase this optimisation procedure on two flows: plane Poiseuille flow at Reynolds number $Re=4000$ , and turbulent flow past a NACA 0012 aerofoil at $Re=23\,000$ . In both cases, the optimisation yields sparse forcing modes that maintain important features of the structures arising from an SVD in order to provide a gain in energy. These results showcase the benefits of utilising a sparsity-promoting resolvent formulation to uncover sparse forcings, specifically with a view to using them as actuation locations for flow control.