2016 journal article

The Sensitivity of WRF Downscaled Precipitation in Puerto Rico to Cumulus Parameterization and Interior Grid Nudging


co-author countries: United States of America 🇺🇸
Source: Web Of Science
Added: August 6, 2018

Abstract The sensitivity of the precipitation over Puerto Rico that is simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model is evaluated using multiple combinations of cumulus parameterization (CP) schemes and interior grid nudging. The NCEP–DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2) is downscaled to 2-km horizontal grid spacing both with convective-permitting simulations (CP active only in the middle and outer domains) and with CP schemes active in all domains. The results generally show lower simulated precipitation amounts than are observed, regardless of WRF configuration, but activating the CP schemes in the inner domain improves the annual cycle, intensity, and placement of rainfall relative to the convective-permitting simulations. Furthermore, the use of interior-grid-nudging techniques in the outer domains improves the placement and intensity of rainfall in the inner domain. Incorporating a CP scheme at convective-permitting scales (<4 km) and grid nudging at non-convective-permitting scales (>4 km) improves the island average correlation of precipitation by 0.05–0.2 and reduces the island average RMSE by up to 40 mm on average over relying on the explicit microphysics at convective-permitting scales with grid nudging. Projected changes in summer precipitation between 2040–42 and 1985–87 using WRF to downscale CCSM4 range from a 2.6-mm average increase to an 81.9-mm average decrease, depending on the choice of CP scheme. The differences are only associated with differences between WRF configurations, which indicates the importance of CP scheme for projected precipitation change as well as historical accuracy.