2022 article

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of ketoprofen and flunixin at piglet castration and tail-docking

Nixon, E., Chittenden, J. T., Baynes, R. E., & Messenger, K. M. (2022, July 14). JOURNAL OF VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS.

author keywords: NSAID; pain; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; piglet
Source: Web Of Science
Added: July 26, 2022

This study performed population-pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (pop-PK/PD) modeling of ketoprofen and flunixin in piglets undergoing routine castration and tail-docking, utilizing previously published data. Six-day-old male piglets (8/group) received either ketoprofen (3.0 mg/kg) or flunixin (2.2 mg/kg) intramuscularly. Two hours post-dose, piglets were castrated and tail docked. Inhibitory indirect response models were developed utilizing plasma cortisol or interstitial fluid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration data. Plasma IC50 for ketoprofen utilizing PGE2 as a biomarker was 1.2 μg/ml, and ED50 for was 5.83 mg/kg. The ED50 calculated using cortisol was 4.36 mg/kg; however, the IC50 was high, at 2.56 μg/ml. A large degree of inter-individual variability (124.08%) was also associated with the cortisol IC50 following ketoprofen administration. IC50 for flunixin utilizing cortisol as a biomarker was 0.06 μg/ml, and ED50 was 0.51 mg/kg. The results show that the currently marketed doses of ketoprofen (3.0 mg/kg) and flunixin (2.2 mg/kg) correspond to drug responses of 33.97% (ketoprofen-PGE2), 40.75% (ketoprofen-cortisol), and 81.05% (flunixin-cortisol) of the maximal possible responses. Given this information, flunixin may be the best NSAID to use in mitigating castration and tail-docking pain at the current label dose.