2022 journal article

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Corneal Cells: Current Status and Application

Stem Cell Reviews and Reports.

By: N. Mahmood n, T. Suh n, K. Ali n, E. Sefat n, U. Jahan n, Y. Huang n, B. Gilger n, J. Gluck n

author keywords: Cornea; Corneal tissue engineering; Induced pluripotent stem cells; Differentiation; Limbal stem cell deficiency
MeSH headings : Humans; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells; Cell Differentiation / genetics; Cornea; Cell Line; Corneal Diseases / therapy
TL;DR: The early development of the cornea is discussed because protocols differentiating iPSCs toward corneal lineages rely heavily upon recapitulating this development, and differentiated iPSC phenotypes have been analyzed with an emphasis on feeder- free, xeno-free, and well-defined protocols, which have clinical relevance. (via Semantic Scholar)
UN Sustainable Development Goal Categories
Source: ORCID
Added: August 1, 2022

Deficiency and dysfunction of corneal cells leads to the blindness observed in corneal diseases such as limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) and bullous keratopathy. Regenerative cell therapies and engineered corneal tissue are promising treatments for these diseases [1]. However, these treatments are not yet clinically feasible due to inadequate cell sources. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by Shinya Yamanaka has provided a multitude of opportunities in research because iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells, thus providing an autologous and unlimited source for corneal cells. Compared to other stem cell sources such as mesenchymal and embryonic, iPSCs have advantages in differentiation potential and ethical concerns, respectively. Efforts have been made to use iPSCs to model corneal disorders and diseases, drug testing [2], and regenerative medicine [1]. Autologous treatments based on iPSCs can be exorbitantly expensive and time-consuming, but development of stem cell banks with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)- homozygous cell lines can provide cost- and time-efficient allogeneic alternatives. In this review, we discuss the early development of the cornea because protocols differentiating iPSCs toward corneal lineages rely heavily upon recapitulating this development. Differentiation of iPSCs toward corneal cell phenotypes have been analyzed with an emphasis on feeder-free, xeno-free, and well-defined protocols, which have clinical relevance. The application, challenges, and potential of iPSCs in corneal research are also discussed with a focus on hurdles that prevent clinical translation.