Wireless Wearable Electrochemical Sensing Platform with Zero- Power Osmotic Sweat Extraction for Continuous Lactate Monitoring
Saha, T., Songkakul, T., Knisely, C. T., Yokus, M. A., Daniele, M. A., Dickey, M. D., … Velev, O. D. (2022, July 12). ACS SENSORS.
Wearable and wireless monitoring of biomarkers such as lactate in sweat can provide a deeper understanding of a subject's metabolic stressors, cardiovascular health, and physiological response to exercise. However, the state-of-the-art wearable and wireless electrochemical systems rely on active sweat released either via high-exertion exercise, electrical stimulation (such as iontophoresis requiring electrical power), or chemical stimulation (such as by delivering pilocarpine or carbachol inside skin), to extract sweat under low-perspiring conditions such as at rest. Here, we present a continuous sweat lactate monitoring platform combining a hydrogel for osmotic sweat extraction, with a paper microfluidic channel for facilitating sweat transport and management, a screen-printed electrochemical lactate sensor, and a custom-built wireless wearable potentiostat system. Osmosis enables zero-electrical power sweat extraction at rest, while continuous evaporation at the end of a paper channel allows long-term sensing from fresh sweat. The positioning of the lactate sensors provides near-instantaneous sensing at low sweat volume, and the custom-designed potentiostat supports continuous monitoring with ultra-low power consumption. For a proof of concept, the prototype system was evaluated for continuous measurement of sweat lactate across a range of physiological activities with changing lactate concentrations and sweat rates: for 2 h at the resting state, 1 h during medium-intensity exercise, and 30 min during high-intensity exercise. Overall, this wearable system holds the potential of providing comprehensive and long-term continuous analysis of sweat lactate trends in the human body during rest and under exercising conditions.